Sectorial Energy and Exergy Utilization



Thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy balance can be applied at macroscales such as sector of activity, geopolitical region, country, group of countries, or the world. An energy balance can be determined by accounting for all primary energy flows, all useful forms of energy, and the energy losses in the conversion processes. Such analysis gives important insights regarding the way in which the primary energy resources are used; it helps identify the ways and places for improvement, and it is a necessary tool for macroeconomical planning.



Coefficient of performance


Specific exergy, kJ/kg


Higher heating value, MJ/kg or MJ/kmol


Solar radiation, W/m2


Specific kinetic energy, kJ/kg


Lower heating value, MJ/kg


Heat per unit of mass, kJ/kg or mol, kJ/mol or surface (″), kW/m2


Heat, J


Temperature, K


Specific work, J/kg


Work, J

Greek Letters


Energy efficiency


Exergy efficiency


Quality factor



Reference state










Per unit of surface


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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