Advertisement

Carbon Dioxide Technologies

  • İbrahim Dinçer
  • Calin Zamfirescu
Chapter

Abstract

Besides being a greenhouse gas and a major component of the carbon cycle in nature, carbon dioxide (CO2, CAS 124-38-9) is a substance of major industrial importance. It has a stable linear molecule in which each atom of oxygen is linked with two strong covalent bonds to the atom of carbon. The number of industrial processes using carbon dioxide is very large; it is used for welding; plastics; synthetic fuel processing; oil, gas, and coal-bed methane recovery; refrigerant; heat transfer fluid (e.g., in refrigeration applications and for gas-cooled nuclear reactors); cryogenic cooling (e.g., dry ice); working fluid in power and heat pump cycles, beverage and food processing and preservation; pharmaceutical and processing industry; pneumatic systems; fighting; fire; powder processing; spray painting and coating; polymerization; separation technologies; crystallization processes; dyeing and dry cleaning of textiles; chemical extractions; various chemical reactions; and so on.

Keywords

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Membrane Reactor Pressure Swing Adsorption Heat Transfer Fluid Rankine Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

A

Area, m2

C

Concentration

COP

Coefficient of performance

d

Diameter, m

D

Diffusion coefficient, m2/s

g

Specific Gibbs energy, kJ/kg

j

Mass velocity, kg/s.m2

K

Equilibrium constant

m

Mass, kg

m

Mass flow rate, kg/s

h

Specific enthalpy, kJ/kg

HHV

Higher heating value, MJ/kg

R

Universal gas constant, J/kmol.K

P

Pressure, Pa

q

Mass specific heat, kJ/kg

s

Specific entropy, kJ/kg.K

S

Entropy, kJ/K

T

Temperature, K

v

Specific volume, m3/kg

\( \dot{V} \)

Volume flow rate, m3/s

w

Specific work, kJ/kg

x

Vapor quality or hydrogen fraction

y

Ice fraction

Greek Letters

α

Membrane permeability

δ

Solubility parameter, N0.5/m or thickness, m

η

Efficiency or dynamic viscosity, Ns/m2

ν

Kinematic viscosity, m2/s

ψ

Exergetic efficiency

ρ

Density, kg/m3

σ

Surface tension, g/s2

τ

Reduced temperature

Subscripts

0

Reference state

c

Critical

comp

Compression

ex

Exergy

ext

Extracted

F

Feed

i

Input

inp

Input

L

Liquid

L,V

Liquid–vapor

mem

Membrane

o

Output

p

Permeate

ref

Refrigeration

res

Removal

sub

Sublimation

V

Vapor

t

Triple

References

  1. Aaron D., Tsouris C. 2005. Separation of CO2 from flue gas. Separation Science and Technology 40:321–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cen Y., Lichtenthaler R.N. 1995. Vapor permeation. In: Membrane Separation Technology; Principles and Applications, Chapter 3. Noble R.D., Stern S.A. eds., Elsevier, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  3. Desimone J.M., Tumas W. 2003. Green Chemistry Using Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Fernandez Tumas Cid M.V., Van der Kraan M., Veugelers W.J.T., Woerlee G.F., Witkamp G.J. 2004. Kinetics study of a dichlorotriazine reactive dye in supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Supercritical Fluids 32:147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gilbert P.M., Azanza R., Burford M., Furuya K., Abal E., Al-Azri A. et al. 2008. Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56:1049–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gottlicher G., Pruschek R. 1997. Comparison of CO2 removal systems for fossil-fuelled power plant processes. Energy Conversion and Management 38:S173–S178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kersh C., Van Roosmalen M.J.E., Woerlee G.F., Witkamp G.J. 2000. Extraction of heavy metals from fly ash and sand with ligands and supercritical carbon dioxide. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 39:4670–4672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Klein S.A. 2010. Engineering Equation Solver (Academic Commercial v.8.629).Google Scholar
  9. Li X., Hagman E., Tsouris C., Lee J.W. 2003. Removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas by ammonia carbonation in gas phase. Energy and Fuels 17:69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lorentzen G. 1994. Revival of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant. Internal Journal of Refrigeration 17:292–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mazzoldi A., Hill T., Colls, J.J. 2008. CO2 transportation for carbon storage: sublimation of carbon dioxide from a dry ice bank. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2:210–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Posada A., Manousiouthakis V. 2006. Hydrogen and dry ice production through phase equilibrium separation and methane reforming. Journal of Power Sources 156:480–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Secretariat 2006 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2009. Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Fertilization on Marine Biodiversity. Montreal, Technical Series No. 45.Google Scholar
  14. Seifritz W. 1993. The terrestrial storage of CO2-dry ice. Energy Conversion and Management34:1121–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Somayajulu G.R. 1988. A generalized equation for surface tension from the triple point to the critical point. International Journal of Thermophysics 9:559–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Span R., Wagner W. 1996. A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100K at pressures up to 800 MPa. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 25:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vesovic V., Wakeham A., Olchowy G.A., Sengres J.V., Watson J.T.R., Millar J. 1990. The transport properties of carbon dioxide. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 19:763–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yave W., Anja C., Peinemann K.-W. 2010. Nanostructured membrane material designed for carbon dioxide separation. Journal of Membrane Science 350:124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

Personalised recommendations