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Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Systems

  • İbrahim Dinçer
  • Calin Zamfirescu
Chapter

Abstract

The hydrogen economy emerged as a potential response to two major problems that mankind faces today, namely, its dependence on fossil fuels and the high level of pollution associated with the fossil fuel combustion process. Indeed, the exploitable and proved fossil fuel reserves are limited. As a consequence of population growth and industrial development of the Asiatic continent (with countries like China and India counting over one billion people each), the rate of fossil fuel exploitation increases constantly together with their costs and the associated pollution levels.

Keywords

Fuel Cell Heat Exchanger Hydrogen Production Heat Pump Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

C

Cost, $ or concentration

CI

Cost index

e

Elementary charge, C

E

Energy, kJ

EIRF

Environmental impact reduction factor

ex

Specific exergy, kJ/kg

Ex

Exergy, kJ

Dp

Depletion factor

f

Volume fraction

F

Faraday constant, As/mol

G

Gibbs free energy, kJ/mol

h

Specific enthalpy, kJ/kg or heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K

H

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

HHV

Higher heating value, MJ/kg

I

Solar irradiance, W, or current intensity, A

k

Thermal conductivity, W/mK

LHV

Lower heating value, MJ/kg

m

Mass, kg

MR

Mols ratio

n

Number of mols

NA

Number of Avogadro

P

Pressure, bar

Q

Heat, kJ

R

Universal gas constant, J/molK

s

Specific entropy, kJ/kgK

S

Entropy, kJ/K

SI

Sustainability index

T

Temperature, K

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K

V

Voltage, V

W

Work, kJ

Greek Letters

\( \delta \)

Thickness, m

\( \gamma \)

Specific heat ratio

\( \Delta \)

Difference

\( \lambda \)

Excess ratio

\( \phi \)

Compactness factor, kW/m3

\( \eta \)

Utilization efficiency

\( \psi \)

Exergy efficiency

\( \upsilon \)

System volume, m3

Subscripts

0

Reference state

C

Condenser

Cmp

Compresser

E

Electrical

EL

Electrolysis

FC

Fuel cell

gen

Generator

geo

Geothermal

H

Heating

hx

Heat exchanger

hr

Heat recovery

in

Inlet

ins

Insulation

m

Material or mean

N

Nernst

o

Output

oc

Open circuit

ohm

Ohmic

ox

Oxidation

OP

Other product

PF

Primary fuel

pmp

Pump

red

Reduction

S

Salt

sc

Short circuit

SF

Synthetic fuel

SH

Space heating

TH

Thermal

TOT

Total

W

Wall

WF

Working fluid

Superscripts

ch

Chemical

thrm

Thermomechanical

\( \mathop {{(\;\;)}}\limits^. \)

Rate (per unit of time)

\( \mathop {{(\;\;)}}\limits^{-} \)

Average value

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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