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Energy Storage

  • İbrahim Dinçer
  • Calin Zamfirescu
Chapter

Abstract

Any energy system includes at least two essential entities, namely, energy generators and energy consumers. Each of these elements has its associated characteristics, and it is not necessary that at all times the energy generated is the same as the energy consumed. Moreover, it is not necessary that the energy is generated at the same location where it is consumed. The transmission grid is a medium that interconnects the energy generators with the energy consumers.

Keywords

Storage Device Energy Storage System Thermal Energy Storage Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Storage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

A

Area, m2

C

Electric capacity, F

cp

Specific heat, J/kg K

d

Distance, m

D

Diameter, m

E

Energy, J

Ex

Exergy, J

\( {{\dot{\it E}x}} \)

Exergy rate, W

d

Distance, m

f

Friction factor

H

Enthalpy, kJ or height, m

h

Specific enthalpy, J/kg, or heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K

i

Electric current intensity, A

I

Maximum current intensity, A or moment of inertia, kg⋅m2

k

Thermal conductivity, W/mK

K

Flywheel constant

L

Length, m

LHV

Lower heating value, MJ/kg

m

Mass, kg

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate, kg/s

N

Number of heat transfer units

P

Pressure, bar

C

Electric capacity, F

q

Heat, kJ

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat rate, W

R

Electric resistance, Ω

R, r

Radius, m

t

Time, m

T

Temperature, K

V

Volume, m3, or velocity m/s or electric potential, V

W

Width, m or work, kJ

\( \dot{W} \)

Work rate, W

y

Coordinate, m

Greek Letters

\( \delta \)

Thickness, m

\( \varepsilon \)

Electric permittivity, F/m

\( \xi \)

Friction factor

\( \eta \)

Energy efficiency

\( \psi \)

Exergy efficiency

\( \rho \)

Density, kg/m3

\( \sigma \)

Tensile stress, N/m2

\( \tau \)

Time constant, s

\( \theta \)

Dimensionless temperature

\( \omega \)

Angular velocity, rad/s

Subscripts

\( \infty \)

Surroundings

0

Initial

c

Charging or capacitor or coolant

ch

Charging

d

Destroyed

dsch

Discharging

e

Exterior

i

Interior

ice

Ice

in

Inner

inp

Input

L

Lateral

loss

Losses

LS

Melting

m

Per unit of mass

max

Maximum

opt

Optimal

out

Outer

R

Retrieved

ref

Reference

ret

Retrieved

s

System or storage or source

tot

Total

T

Total

w

Wall

References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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