District Energy Systems

  • İbrahim Dinçer
  • Calin Zamfirescu


During the past decade, increasing local and global problems regarding energy, the environment, and the economy have created one of the biggest challenges for human beings to combat through sustainable solutions. District energy systems (DESs) for distributed heating and/or cooling, known also as district heating and cooling (DHC) systems, appear to be part of the solutions. In some situations, for example in the case of a major power plant, it may appear economically attractive to build a pipe network that distributes the ejected heat among a number of residential/commercial/industrial users covering a territory around the central power plant. Cogeneration, geothermal, or solar energy systems are the most suitable for being coupled to DHC. Steam, hot or cold water, or ice slurry can be used as heat-conveying fluids. The opportunity of using a DES must be judged first on an economic basis by comparison of the life-cycle cost (LCC) with the cost of other competing systems, such as electrically driven heat pumps at the user’s location.


District Heating Exergy Efficiency Rankine Cycle Exergy Loss Exergy Destruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


\( \dot{E}x \)

Exergy rate, W


Figure of merit


Specific enthalpy, kJ/kg

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate, kg/s

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat rate, W


Specific entropy, kJ/kg K


Temperature, K

\( \dot{W} \)

Work rate, W

Greek Letters


Energy efficiency


Exergy efficiency



Reference state




Useful cooling


District cooling


District heating


District heating and cooling






Useful heat




Source or system


\( \overline {\left( {} \right)} \)

Average value


Radiators and fan coils


Water heater


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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