# Thermodynamic Fundamentals

## Abstract

Sustainable energy systems exhibit a diverse nature and cover a large number of processes such as energy conversion, heating, cooling, and chemical reactions. Sustainable energy engineering is a complex subject because many disciplines such as thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, electromagnetics, and chemical reaction engineering are encountered in its processes and applications.

## Keywords

Heat Pump Entropy Generation Heat Engine Thermodynamic System Exergy Analysis## Nomenclature

*a*Acceleration, m/s

^{2}*A*Area, m

^{2}*c*Specific heat, J/kg K

- COP
Coefficient of performance

*d*Displacement, m

- DOF
Degree of freedom

*E*Energy, J

*F*Force, N

*g*Gravitational acceleration, m/s

^{2}*h*Specific enthalpy, J/kg

*H*Enthalpy, J

*k*_{B}Boltzmann constant, J/K

*K*Kinetic energy, J

*KE*Kinetic energy, J

*m*Mass, kg

*M*Molecular mass, kg/kmol

*n*Number of moles, mol or polytropic exponent

*N*Number of molecules

*N*_{A}Number of Avogadro

*p*Momentum, kg m/s

*P*Pressure, Pa

*PE*Potential energy, J

*q*Mass specific heat, J/kg

*Q*Heat, J

*R*Universal gas constant, J/mol K

- R
_{g} Real gas constant, J/kg K

*s*Specific entropy, J/kg K

*S*Entropy, J/K

*T*Temperature, K

*v*Velocity, m/s, or specific volume, m

^{3}/kg*V*Volume, m

^{3}*u*Specific internal energy, J/kg

*U*Internal energy, J

*W*Work, J

*x*Vapor quality

*Z*Elevation, m or compressibility factor

## Greek Letters

*α*Peng–Robinson parameter

*γ*Adiabatic exponent

*η*Energy efficiency

*ψ*Exergy efficieny

*ω*Accentric factor

## Subscripts

- gen
Generated

- H
High

- liq
Liquid

- L
Low

- n
Value corresponding to 1 mol

- p
Constant pressure

- r
Reduced value

- rev
Reversible

- t
Total

- v
Constant volume

- vap
Vapor

- surr
Surroundings

- sys
System

## Superscripts

- _
Average value

- \( \bullet \)
Rate (per unit of time)

## References

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