Advertisement

Spatial coverage and temporal trends of land-based atmospheric mercury measurements in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

  • Ralf Ebinghaus
  • Catharine Banic
  • Steve Beauchamp
  • Dan Jaffe
  • Hans Herbert Kock
  • Nicola Pirrone
  • Laurier Poissant
  • Francesca Sprovieri
  • Peter S. Weiss-Penzias
Chapter

Summary

This chapter presents a review of atmospheric mercury measurements (as total and as speciated mercury) conducted at terrestrial sites during the last decade. A large number of activities have been carried out in different regions of the world aiming to assess the level of mercury in ambient air and precipitation, and its variation over time and with changing meteorological conditions. Recent studies have highlighted that in fast developing countries (i.e., China, India) mercury emissions are increasing in a dramatic fashion due primarily to a sharp increase in energy production from the combustion of coal (Chapter-2 by Street et al.; Chapter-3 by Feng et al. in this report). The large increase in mercury emissions in China over the last decade are not currently reflected in the long-term measurement of total gaseous mercury at Mace Head, Ireland between 1996 to 2006, nor in the precipitation data of the North American Mercury Deposition Network (MDN). There are documented recent increases in the oxidation potential of the atmosphere which might account, at least in part, for the discrepancy between observed gaseous mercury concentrations (steady or decreasing) and global mercury emission inventories (increasing). This chapter provides a detailed overview of atmospheric measurements performed at industrial, remote and rural sites during the last decade with reference to the monitoring techniques and location of monitoring sites in most of the continents.

Keywords

Mercury Concentration Mercury Emission Mercury Species Marine Boundary Layer Atmospheric Mercury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

9.8 References

  1. Abbott, M. C-J. Lin, P. Martian, J. Einerson, 2007 Atmospheric Mercury Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in Southern Idaho, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality report, INL/EXT-06-12048, accessed at http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id= 923511, May 14, 2008.
  2. Amouroux, D., Wasserman, J.C., Tessier, E., Donard, O.F.X., (1999), Elemental mercury in the atmosphere of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana), Environmental Science and Technology 33 (17), pp. 3044–3048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariya, P.A., Khalizov, A., Gidas, A. (2002) Reactions of gaseous mercury with atomic and molecular halogens: kinetics, product studies, and atmospheric implications. J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 7310–7320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aspmo Katrine, Pierre-Alexis Gauchard, Alexandra Steffen, Christian Temme, Torunn Berg, Enno Bahlmann, Cathy Banic, Aurelien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Christophe Ferrari, Nicola Pirrone, Francesca Sprovieri and Grethe Wibetoe, (2005), Measurements of atmospheric mercury species during an international study of mercury depletion events at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, spring 2003, How reproducible are our present methods? Atmospheric Environment, Volume 39, Issue 39, 7607–7619Google Scholar
  5. Baker, P.G.L., Brunke, E.-G., Slemr, F., Crouch, A.M., (2002), Atmospheric mercury measurements at Cape Point, South Africa, Atmospheric Environment 36 (14), pp. 2459–2465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banic, C.M., Beauchamp, S.T., Tordon, R.J., Schroeder, W.H., Steffen, A., Anlauf, K.A., Wong, H.K.T., (2003), Vertical distribution of gaseous elemental mercury in Canada, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 108 (9), pp. ACH 6–1 ACH 6-14Google Scholar
  7. Beauchamp, S., R. Tordon, L. Phinney, K. Abraham, A. Pinette, A. MacIntosh, A. Rencz, H. Wong, J. Dalziel, 2002. Air-surface exchange of mercury over natural and impacted surfaces in Atlantic Canada. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment and Analysis. 2 (2), pp. 157–165.Google Scholar
  8. Bedowska, M., Falkowska, L., Lewandowska, A., (2006), Airborne trace metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn) of the coastal region, Gulf of Gdańsk, Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 35 (2), pp. 159–169Google Scholar
  9. Berg, T., Fjeld, E., Steinnes, E., (2006), Atmospheric mercury in Norway: Contributions from different sources, Science of the Total Environment 368 (1), pp. 3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biester, H., Kilian, R., Franzen, C., Woda, C., Mangini, A. and Scho¨ ler, H.F. 2002. Elevated mercury accumulation in a peat bog of the Magellanic Moorlands, Chile (538S)—An anthropogenic signal from the Southern Hemisphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201, 609–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bindler, R., Renberg, I., Appleby, P.G., Anderson, N.J. and Rose, N.L. 2001. Mercury accumulation rates and spatial patterns in lake sediments from west Greenland: a coast to ice margin transect. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 736–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanchard, P., Froude, F.A., Martin, J.B., Dryfhout-Clark, H., Woods, J.T., (2002), Four years of continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements at sites in Ontario, Canada, Atmospheric Environment 36 (23), pp. 3735–3743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brunke, E.-G., Labuschagne, C., Slemr, F., (2001), Gaseous mercury emissions from a fire in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, during January 2000, Geophysical Research Letters 28 (8), pp. 1483–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burke, J. Hoyer, M. Keeler G. and Scherbatskoy. Wet deposition of mercury and ambient mercury concentrations at a site in the Lake Champlain basin. Water Air and Soil Pollution 80 (1995), pp. 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carpi, A., 1997. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere. Water , Air, and Soil Pollution 98, 241–254.Google Scholar
  16. De La Rosa, D.A., Volke-Sepulveda, T., Solorzano, G., Green, C., Tordon, R., Beauchamp, S., (2004), Survey of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Mexico, Atmospheric Environment 38 (29), pp. 4839–4846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dommergue, A., Ferrari, C.P., Planchon, F.A.M, Boutron, C.F., (2002), Influence of anthropogenic sources on total gaseous mercury variability in Grenoble suburban air (France), Science of the Total Environment 297 (1-3), pp. 203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dvonch, J.T., Keeler, G.J., Marsik, F.J., (2005), The influence of meteorological conditions on the wet deposition of mercury in southern Florida, Journal of Applied Meteorology 44 (9), pp. 1421–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ebinghaus, R.; Jennings, S.G.; Schroeder, W.H.; Berg, T.; Donaghy, T.; Guentzel, J.; Kenny, C.; (1999), International field intercomparison measurements of atmospheric mercury species at Mace Head, Ireland, Atmospheric Environment 33 (18), pp. 3063–3073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ebinghaus, R., Slemr, F., (2000), Aircraft measurements of atmospheric mercury over southern and eastern Germany, Atmospheric Environment 34 (6), pp. 895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ebinghaus, R., Slemr, F., Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M., van Velthoven, P., Zahn, A., Hermann, M., O'Sullivan, D.A., Oram, D.E., (2007), Emissions of gaseous mercury from biomass burning in South America in 2005 observed during CARIBIC flights, Geophysical Research Letters 34 (8), art. no. L08813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Engstrom, D.R. and Swain, E.B. 1997. Recent declines in atmospheric mercury deposition in the upper Midwest. Environ. Sci. Technol. 312, 60–67.Google Scholar
  23. Fang, F., Wang, Q., Li, D., Zhao, G., Wang, L., (2001a), Atmospheric particulate mercury concentration in Changchun City and its dry deposition flux, Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science 22 (2), pp. 60–63Google Scholar
  24. Fang, F., Wang, Q., Li, J., (2001 b), Atmospheric particulate mercury concentration and its dry deposition flux in Changchun City, China, Science of the Total Environment 281 (1-3), pp. 229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feng, X., Tang, S., Shang, L., Yan, H., Sommar, J., Lindqvist, O., (2003), Total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere of Guiyang, PR China, Science of the Total Environment 304 (1-3), pp. 61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feng, X., Shang, L., Wang, S., Tang, S., Zheng, W., (2004), Temporal variation of total gaseous mercury in the air of Guiyang, China, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 109 (3), pp. D03303 1–9Google Scholar
  27. Ferrara, R., Maserti, B.E., Andersson, M., Edner, H., Ragnarson, P., Svanberg, S., Hernandez, A., (1998), Atmospheric mercury concentrations and fluxes in the Almaden district (Spain), Atmospheric mercury concentrations and fluxes in the Almaden district (Spain)Google Scholar
  28. Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., (2000), Temporal trend in gaseous mercury evasion from the Mediterranean Sea Waters. Science of Total Environment, 259, 183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fostier, A.H., Michelazzo, P.A.M., (2006), Gaseous and particulate atmospheric mercury concentrations in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (Sao Paulo State, Brazil), Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 17 (5), pp. 886–894Google Scholar
  30. Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Hobbs, P.V., Sinha, P., (2003), Mercury emissions from the August 2001 wildfires in Washington State and an agricultural waste fire in Oregon and atmospheric mercury budget estimates, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 (2), pp. 8–1Google Scholar
  31. Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., (2004), Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea, and China as observed during the 2001 ACE-Asia field campaign: Measurements, distributions, sources, and implications, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 109 (19), pp. D19S25 1–13 Google Scholar
  32. Gabriel, M.C., Williamson, D.G., Brooks, S., Lindberg, S., (2005), Atmospheric speciation of mercury in two contrasting Southeastern US airsheds, Atmospheric Environment 39 (27), pp. 4947–4958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garcia-Sanchez, A., Contreras, F., Adams, M., Santos, F., (2006), Airborne total gaseous mercury and exposure in a Venezuelan mining area, International Journal of Environmental Health Research 16 (5), pp. 361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gardfeldt, K., Sommar, J., Ferrara, R., Ceccarini, C., Lanzillotta, E., Munthe, J., Wangberg, I., Lindqvist, O., Pirrone, N., Sprovieri, F., Pesenti, E. (2003). Evasion of mercury from coastal and open waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 37-S1, 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gildemeister, A.E., Graney, J., Keeler, G.J., (2005), Source proximity reflected in spatial and temporal variability in particle and vapor phase Hg concentrations in Detroit, MI, Atmospheric Environment 39 (2), pp. 353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gill, G.A., Guentzel, J.L., Landing, W.M., Pollman, C.D., (1995), Total gaseous mercury measurements in Florida: The FAMS project (1992- 1994), Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80 (1-4), pp. 235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gustin, M.S., Lindberg, S., Marsik, F., Casimir, A., Ebinghaus, R., Edwards, G., Hubble-Fitzgerald, C., (…), Zhang, H., (1999), Nevada STORMS project: Measurement of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surfaces, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 104 (D17), pp. 21831–21844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hachiya, N., Takizawa, Y., Hisamatsu, S., Abe, T., Abe, Y., Motohashi, Y., (1998), Atmospheric mercury concentrations in the basin of the Amazon, Brazil, Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 2 (4), pp. 183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Han, Y.-J., Holsen, T.M., Lai, S.-O., Hopke, P.K., Yi, S.-M., Liu, W., Pagano, J., (…), Andolina, C., (2004), Atmospheric gaseous mercury concentrations in New York State: Relationships with meteorological data and other pollutants, Atmospheric Environment 38 (37), pp. 6431–6446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hedgecock, I.M. and Pirrrone, N. (2001), Mercury and photochemistry in the marine boundary layer-modelling studies suggest the in situ production of reactive gas phase mercury. Atmos. Env. 35, 3055–3062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hedgecock, I., Pirrone, N., Sprovieri, F., Pesenti, E. (2003) Reactive Gaseous Mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer: Modeling and Experimental Evidence of its Formation in the Mediterranean. Atmos. Environ. 37/S1, 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hedgecock, I. M., and Pirrone, N., (2004) Chasing Quicksilver: Modeling the Atmospheric Lifetime of Hg0 (g) in the Marine Boundary Layer at Various Latitudes. Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.38, 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hedgecock, I.M., Hedgecock, I.M., Trunfio, G.A., Pirrone, N., Sprovieri, F. (2006) MERCYMS Final Technical Report, Annex 2.2: Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Mediterranean case and sensitivity studies using the AMCOTS (Atmospheric Mercury Chemistry over the Sea) model. Technical report CNR/IIA/2006/10, Rende, Italy, 16 p.Google Scholar
  44. Higueras, P., Oyarzun, R., Lillo, J., Oyarzun, J., Maturana, H., (2005), Atmospheric mercury data for the Coquimbo region, Chile: Influence of mineral deposits and metal recovery practices, Atmospheric Environment 39 (39 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 7587–7596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hladikova, V., Petrik, J., Jursa, S., Ursinyova, M., Kocan, A., (2001), Atmospheric mercury levels in the Slovak Republic, Chemosphere 45 (6-7), pp. 801–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horvat, M., Kotnik, J., Fajon, V., Logar, M., Zvonaric, T., Pirrone, N., (2001), Speciation of mercury in waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Materials and Geoenvironment 48, 24–252.Google Scholar
  47. Horvat, M., Kotnik, J., Fajon, V., Logar, M., Zvonaric, T., Pirrone, N. (2003) Speciation of Mercury in Surface and Deep-Sea waters in the Mediterranean Sea. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37/S1 , 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoyer, M., Burke, J., Keeler, G., (1995), Atmospheric sources, transport and deposition of mercury in Michigan: Two years of event precipitation, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80 (1-4), pp. 199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Iverfeldt, A., Munthe, J., Brosset, C., Pacyna, J., (1995), Long-term changes in concentration and deposition of atmospheric mercury over Scandinavia, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80 (1-4), pp. 227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., (2005), Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia, Atmospheric Environment 39 (17), pp. 3029–3038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keeler, G.J., Gratz, L.E., Al-Wali, K., (2005), Long-term atmospheric mercury wet deposition at Underhill, Vermont, Ecotoxicology 14 (1-2), pp. 71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Keeler, G.J., Landis, M.S., Norris, G.A., Christianson, E.M., Dvonch, J.T., (2006), Sources of mercury wet deposition in eastern Ohio, USA, Environmental Science and Technology 40 (19), pp. 5874–5881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kellerhals, M., Beauchamp, S., Belzer, W., Blanchard, P., Froude, F., Harvey, B., McDonald, K., (…), Tordon, R., (2003), Temporal and spatial variability of total gaseous mercury in Canada: Results from the Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network (CAMNet), Atmospheric Environment 37 (7), pp. 1003–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim, K.-H., Kim, M.Y., (1996), Preliminary measurements of atmospheric mercury in mountainous regions of Korea, Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 31 (8), pp. 2023–2032Google Scholar
  55. Kim, K.-H., Kim, M.-Y., (2001 a), Some insights into short-term variability of total gaseous mercury in urban air, Atmospheric Environment 35 (1), pp. 49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kim, K.-H., Kim, M.-Y., (2001 b), The temporal distribution characteristics of total gaseous mercury at an urban monitoring site in Seoul during 1999-2000, Atmospheric Environment 35 (25), pp. 4253–4263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim, K.-H., Kim, M.-Y., Kim, J., Lee, G., (2002), The concentra-tions and fluxes of total gaseous mercury in a western coastal area of Korea during late March 2001, Atmospheric Environ-ment 36 (21), pp. 3413–3427Google Scholar
  58. Kim, K.-H., Ebinghaus, R., Schroeder, W.H., Blanchard, P., Kock, H.H., Steffen, A., Froude, F.A., (…), Kim, J.-H., (2005), Atmospheric mercury concentrations from several observatory sites in the Northern Hemisphere, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 50 (1), pp. 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kock, H.H., Bieber, E., Ebinghaus, R., Spain, T.G., Thees, B., (2005), Comparison of long-term trends and seasonal variations of atmospheric mercury concentrations at the two European coastal monitoring stations Mace Head, Ireland, and Zingst, Germany, Atmospheric Environment 39 (39 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 7549–7556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kotnik, J., Horvat, M., Dizdarevic, T., (2005), Current and past mercury distribution in air over the Idrija Hg mine region, Slovenia, Atmospheric Environment 39 (39 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 7570–7579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kotnik, J., Horvat, M., Tessier, E., Ogrinc, N., Monperrus, M., Amouroux, D., Fajon, V., Gibicar, D., Zizek, S., Horvat, N., Sprovieri, F., Pirrone, N. (2007). Mercury speciation in surface and deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Chemistry Vol.107, 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lacerda LD., (1997), Global mercury emissions from gold and silver mining. Water Air and Soil Pollution 97 (3-4): 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lacerda L.D., (2003), Updating global Hg emissions from small-scale gold mining and assessing its environmental impacts. Envir Geol. 43, 308–314.Google Scholar
  64. Lamborg, C.H., Fitzgerald, W.F., Damman, A.W.H., Benoit, J.M., Balcom, P.H. and Engstrom, D.R. 2002. Modern and historic atmospheric mercury fluxes in both hemispheres: global and regional mercury cycling implications. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 104, doi:10.1029/2001GB1847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Landis, M.S., Vette, A.F., Keeler, G.J., (2002), Atmospheric mercury in the Lake Michigan basin: Influence of the Chicago/Gary urban area, Environmental Science and Technology 36 (21), pp. 4508–4517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Landis, M. S., G. J. Keeler, K. I. Al-Wali, R. K. Stevens, (2004) Divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant and its impact on near-field atmospheric dry deposition. Atmos. Environ., 38, 613–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laurier, F. J. G., R. P. Mason, L. Whalin, and S. Kato, (2003) Reactive gaseous mercury formation in the North Pacific Ocean's marine boundary layer: A potential role of halogen chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D17), 4529, doi:10.1029/2003JD003625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Laurier, F., Mason, R., (2007), Mercury concentration and speciation in the coastal and open ocean boundary layer, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 112 (6), art. no. D06302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lindberg, S.E., Turner, R.R., Meyers, T.P., Taylor Jr, G.E., Schroeder, W.H., (1991), Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of Hg to a deciduous forest at Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee, USA, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 56 (SPEC. VOL.), pp. 577–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lindberg, S. E., Stratton, W. J., (1998), Atmospheric mercury speciation: concentrations and behaviour of reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air, Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lindberg, S., R. Bullock, R. Ebinghaus, D. Engstrom, X. B. Feng, W. Fitzgerald, N. Pirrone, E. Prestbo, and C. Seigneur (2007), A synthesis of progress and uncertainties in attributing the sources of mercury in deposition, Ambio 36(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu, S., Nadim, F., Perkins, C., Carley, R.J., Hoag, G.E., Lin, Y., Chen, L., (2002), Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China, Chemosphere 48 (1), pp. 97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu B., et al., (2007) Temporal variability of mercury speciation in urban air. Atmos. Environ., 41, 1911–1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lynam, M., G. J. Keeler, (2005b), Artifacts associated with the measurement of particulate mercury in an urban environment: The influence of elevated ozone concentrations, Atmos. Environ., 39, 3081–3088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Malcolm, E. G., G. J. Keeler, and M. S. Landis, (2003) The effects of the coastal environment on the atmospheric mercury cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D12), 4357, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD003084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Malcolm, E.G., Keeler, G.J., Lawson, S.T., Sherbatskoy, T.D., (2003), Mercury and trace elements in cloud water and precipitation collected on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont,Google Scholar
  77. Mason, R.P., Lawson, N.M., Sheu, G.-R., (2001), Mercury in the Atlantis Ocean: factors controlling air-sea exchange of mercury and its distribution in the upper waters. Deep-Sea Res. II. 48, 2829 2853Google Scholar
  78. Munthe, J., Wangberg, I., Iverfeldt, A., Lindqvist, O., Stromberg, D., Sommar, J., Gardfeldt, K., (…), Siemens, V., (2003), Distribution of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Europe: Final results from the MOE project, Atmospheric Environment 37 (SUPPL. 1), pp. S9–S20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Munthe, J., Wangberg, I., Pirrone, N., Iverfeld, A., Ferrara, R., Ebinghaus, R., Feng, R., Gerdfelt, K., Keeler, G.J., Lanzillotta, E., Lindberg, S.E., Lu, J., Mamane, Y., Prestbo, E., Schmolke, S., Schroder, W.H., Sommar, J., Sprovieri, F., Stevens, R.K., Stratton, W., Tuncel, G., Urba, A. (2001) Intercomparison of Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Mercury Species. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3007–3017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nguyen, H.L., Leermakers, M., Kurunczi, S., Bozo, L., Baeyens, W., (2005), Mercury distribution and speciation in Lake Balaton, Hungary, Science of the Total Environment 340 (1-3), pp. 231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nguyen, H.T., Kim, K.-H., Kim, M.-Y., Hong, S., Youn, Y.-H., Shon, Z.H. and Lee, J.S., (2007). Monitoring of atmospheric mercury at a Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) site on An-Myun Island, Korea, Water, Air, and Soil Pollutions 185 , pp. 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Pirrone, N. (2001). European emissions of atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in 1995. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2987–2996. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S, (2006), Global Anthropogenic Mercury Emission Inventory for 2000, Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048–4063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pirrone, N., Keeler, G.J., Nriagu, J. (1996). Regional differences in worldwide emissions of mercury to the atmosphere. Atmos. Environ., 17, 2981–2987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pirrone, N., Allegrini, I., Keeler, G.J., Nriagu, J.O., Rossmann, R. and Robbins, J.A. (1998) Historical Atmospheric Mercury Emissions and Depositions in North America Compared to Mercury Accumulations in Sedimentary Records. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 32, 929–940. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pirrone, N., Hedgecock, I., Forlano, L. (2000). The role of the ambient aerosol in the atmospheric processing of semi-volatile contaminants: a parameterised numerical model (GASPAR). Journal of Geophysical Research D105 (8), 9773–9790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pirrone, N., Costa, P., Pacyna, J.M., Ferrara, R., (2001). Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region. Atmos. Env., 35, 2997–3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pirrone, N., Sprovieri, F., Hedgecock, I., Gensini, M. (2001) MAMCS final report. Technical rep ort CNR/IIA/2001/08, Rende (CS), pp. 253.Google Scholar
  89. Pirrone, N., Pacyna, J.M., Munthe, J., Barth, H. (Editors) (2003) Dynamic Processes of Mercury and Other Atmospheric Contaminants in the Marine Boundary Layer of European Seas. Special Issue of Atmospheric Environment, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Vol. 37/S, 1-178.Google Scholar
  90. Pirrone, N. (2006) An integrated approach to assess the mercury cycling in the Mediterranean basin (MERCYMS). Final Technical Report + Annexes + CD-Rom. Technical report CNR/IIA/2006/08, Rende, Italy, 377 p.Google Scholar
  91. Poissant, L. and Casimir, A. , (1998), Water-air and soil-air exchange rate of total gaseous mercury measured at background sites, Atmospheric Environment, 32, 883–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Poissant, L., Pilote, M., Beauvais, C., Constant, P., Zhang, H.H., (2005), A year of continuous measurements of three atmospheric mercury species (Hg0, RGM and Hgp) in southern Quebec, Canada, Atmospheric Environment 39 (7), pp. 1275–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pollman, C., Gill, G., Landing, W., Guentzel, J., Bare, D., Porcella, D., Zillioux, E., Atkeson, T., (1995), Overview of the Florida Atmospheric Mercury Study (FAMS), Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80 (1-4), pp. 285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schmolke, S.R., Schroeder, W.H., Kock, H.H., Schneeberger, D., Munthe, J., Ebinghaus, R., (1999), Simultaneous measurements of total gaseous mercury at four sites on a 800 km transect: Spatial distribution and short-time variability of total gaseous mercury over central Europe, Atmospheric Environment 33 (11), pp. 1725–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schroeder, W.H., Ebinghaus, R., Shoeib, M., Timoschenko, K., Barrie, L.A., (1995), Atmospheric mercury measurements in the northern hemisphere from 56° to 82.5° N latitude, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80 (1-4), pp. 1227–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schroeder, W.H., Keeler, G., Kock, H., Roussel, P., Schneeberger, D., Schaedlich, F., (1995), International field intercomparison of atmospheric mercury measurement methods, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80 (1–4), pp. 611–620Google Scholar
  97. Schroeder, W.H., Munthe, J., (1998), Atmospheric mercury - An overview, Atmospheric Environment 32 (5), pp. 809–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shang,L., Feng,X., Zheng, W., Yan, H., (2003), Preliminary study of the distribution of gaseous mercury species in the air of Guiyang city, China, Journal De Physique. IV : JP 107 (II), pp. 1219–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sheu, G.-R., Mason, R.P., Lawson, N.M., (2002), Speciation and distribution of atmospheric mercury over the northern Chesapeake Bay, ACS Symposium Series 806, pp. 223–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sigler, J. M., and X. Lee (2006), Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14316, doi:10.1029/2005JD006814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Slemr, F., Junkermann, W., Schmidt, R.W.H., Sladkovic, R., (1995), Indication of change in global and regional trends of atmospheric mercury concentrations, Geophysical Research Letters 22 (16), pp. 2143–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Slemr F, Brunke EG, Ebinghaus R, Temme C, Munthe J, Wängberg I. (2003). Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1977. Geophys Res Lett., 30 Art No 1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Slemr, F., Ebinghaus, R., Simmonds, P.G., Jennings, S.G., (2006), European emissions of mercury derived from long-term observations at Mace Head, on the western Irish coast, Atmospheric Environment 40 (36), pp. 6966–6974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sohn, D.H., Jung, W.T., Kim, D., (1993), Distribution of total mercury in the ambient atmosphere of Seoul and its diurnal, monthly and altitudinal variations, Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 39 (6), pp. 582–588Google Scholar
  105. Sprovieri, F., Pirrone, N., Gärdfeldt., K. and Sommar, J. (2003) Mercury speciation in the marine boundary layer along a 6000 km cruise path around the Mediterranean Sea, Atmos. Environ., 37, S6371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sprovieri, F., Pirrone, N. (2006) MERCYMS Final Technical Report, Annex 3.2: Evaluation of the MERCYMS coastal and Mediterranean Sea measurement data base concerning TGM. Technical report CNR/IIA/2006/11, Rende, Italy, pp. 6.Google Scholar
  107. Sprovieri, F. and Pirrone, N. (2008) Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Atmospheric Mercury Species over the Adriatic Sea. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 8(2), 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stamenkovic, J., Lyman, S., Gustin, M.S., (2007), Seasonal and diel variation of atmospheric mercury concentrations in the Reno (Nevada, USA) airshed , Atmospheric Environment 41 (31), pp. 6662–6672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Steding, D., Flegal, A., (2002), Mercury concentrations in coastal California precipitation: Evidence of local and trans-Pacific fluxes of mercury to North America, Journal Geophysical Research, 107, D24, 4764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Steffen, S. and Schroeder, B., (1999), Standard Operating Procedure Manual for Atmospheric Mercury Measurements, Environment Canada, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  111. Swartzendruber P. C., D. A. Jaffe, E. M. Prestbo, P., Weiss-Penzias, N. E. Selin, R. Park, D. Jacob, S. Strode, L. and Jaegl, (2006), Observations of Reactive Gaseous Mercury in the Free-Troposphere at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory , Journal of Geophysical Research, 111(D24), D24301, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Temme, C., Blanchard, P., Steffen, A., Banic, C., Beauchamp, S., Poissant, L., Tordon, R., Wiens, B., (2007), Trend, seasonal and multivariate analysis study of total gaseous mercury data from the Canadian atmospheric mercury measurement network (CAMNet), Atmospheric Environment 41 (26), pp. 5423–5441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tomiyasu, T., Nagano, A., Sakamoto, H., Yonehara, N., (2000), Background levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City, and influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan, Science of the Total Environment 259 (1-3), pp. 231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tomiyasu, T., Eguchi, M., Sakamoto, H., Anazawa, K., Imura, R., (2006), Seasonal change and vertical movement of atmospheric mercury at Kagoshima City in relation with Sakurajima Volcano, Japan, Geochemical Journal 40 (3), pp. 253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Urba, A., Kvietkus, K., Marks, R., (2000), Gas-phase mercury in the atmosphere over the southern Baltic Sea coast, Science of the Total Environment 259 (1–3), pp. 203–210Google Scholar
  116. Valente, R.J., Shea, C., Lynn Humes, K., Tanner, R.L., (2007), Atmospheric mercury in the Great Smoky Mountains compared to regional and global levels, Atmospheric Environment 41 (9), pp. 1861–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vanarsdale, A., J. Weiss, G. Keeler, E. Miller, G. Boulet, R. Brulotte, and L. Poissant (2005), Patterns of mercury deposition and concentration in northeastern North America (1996-2002), Ecotoxicology, 14(1-2), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang, S., Feng, X., Qiu, G., Wei, Z., Xiao, T., (2005), Mercury emission to atmosphere from Lanmuchang Hg-Tl mining area, Southwestern Guizhou, China, Atmospheric Environment 39 (39 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 7459–7473 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wang, Z., Chen, Z., Duan, N., Zhang, X., (2007), Gaseous elemental mercury concentration in atmosphere at urban and remote sites in China, Journal of Environmental Sciences 19 (2), pp. 176–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wangberg, I., Munthe, J., Pirrone, N., Iverfeldt, A., Bahlman, E., Costa, P., Ebinghaus, R., (…), Tuncel, G., (2001), Atmospheric mercury distribution in Northern Europe and in the Mediterranean region, Atmospheric Environment 35 (17), pp. 3019–3025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wangberg, I., Munthe, J., Berg, T., Ebinghaus, R., Kock, H.H., Temme, C., Bieber, E., (…), Stolk, A., (2007), Trends in air concentration and deposition of mercury in the coastal environment of the North Sea Area, Atmospheric Environment 41 (12), pp. 2612–2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wangberg, I., Munthe, J., Amouroux, D., Andersson, M. E., Fajon, V., Ferrara, R., Gårdfeldt, K., Horvat, M., Mamane, Y., Melamed, E., Monperrus, M., Ogrinc, N., Yossef, O., Pirrone, N., Sommar, J., Sprovieri, F. (2008) Atmospheric Mercury at Mediterranean Coastal Stations. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 8 (2), 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., McClintick, A., Prestbo, E., Landis, M., (2003), Gaseous Elemental Mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer: Evidence for Rapid Removal in Anthropogenic Pollution, Environmental Science and Technology 37(17), 3755 –3763, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Weiss-Penzias P., D. A. Jaffe, P. Swartzendruber, W. Hafner, D., Chand, and E. Prestbo, (2007), Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor Observatory , Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366–4379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Weiss-Penzias P., D. A. Jaffe, P. Swartzendruber, W. Hafner, D., Chand, and E. Prestbo, (2007 a), Observations of Asian air pollution in the free troposphere at Mount Bachelor Observatory during the spring of 2004, Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366–4379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Xiu, G.L., Jin, Q., Zhang, D., Shi, S., Huang, X., Zhang, W., Bao, L., (…), Chen, B., (2005), Characterization of size-fractionated particulate mercury in Shanghai ambient air, Atmospheric Environment 39 (3), pp. 419–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zielonka, U., Hlawiczka, S., Fudala, J., Wangberg, I., Munthe, J., (2005), Seasonal mercury concentrations measured in rural air in Southern Poland: Contribution from local and regional coal combustion, Atmospheric Environment 39 (39 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 7580–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Ebinghaus
    • 1
  • Catharine Banic
  • Steve Beauchamp
  • Dan Jaffe
  • Hans Herbert Kock
  • Nicola Pirrone
  • Laurier Poissant
  • Francesca Sprovieri
  • Peter S. Weiss-Penzias
  1. 1.GKSS Research Centre GeesthachtInstitute for Coastal ResearchGermany

Personalised recommendations