Mercury emissions from global biomass burning: spatialand temporal distribution

  • Hans R. Friedli
  • Avelino F. ArellanoJr
  • Sergio Cinnirella
  • Nicola Pirrone


This chapter represents a new addition to the UNEP global mercury budget: the mercury emissions from biomass burning, here defined as emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns, and excluding contributions from bio-fuel consumption and charcoal production and use. The results cover the 1997-2006 timeframe. The average annual global mercury emission estimate from biomass burning for 1997-2006 is 675 ± 240 Mg yr-1. This accounts for 8% of all current anthropogenic and natural emissions. The largest Hg emissions are from tropical and boreal Asia, followed by Africa and South America. They do not coincide with the largest carbon biomass burning emissions, which originate from Africa. Our methodology for budget estimation is based on a satellite-constrained bottom-up global carbon fire emission database (GFED version 2), which divides the globe into regions with similar ecosystems and burn behaviour. To estimate mercury emissions, the carbon model output is paired with regional emission factors for Hg, EF(Hg). There are large uncertainties in the budget estimation associated with burned area, fuel mass, and combustion completeness. The discrepancy between the model and traditional ground based assessments (e.g. FRA, 2000) is unacceptably large at this time. Of great urgency is the development and validation of a model for mercury cycling in forests, accounting for the biogeochemistry for each region. This would provide an understanding of the source/sink relationship and thus mercury accumulation or loss in ecosystems. Limiting the burning of tropical and boreal forests would have two beneficial effects: reducing the source of mercury releases to the atmosphere from burning, and maintaining a sink for atmospheric mercury. Restricting the global release mercury would reduce the vegetation/soil pools, and the potential Hg release in case of fire.


Carbon Emission Emission Factor Biomass Burning Burned Area Fuel Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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8.5 Acknowledgments

We would like to thank James T. Randerson of University of California, Irvine, Guido R. van der Werf of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Louis Giglio of Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Maryland, G. James Collatz of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland and Prasad S. Kasibhatla of Duke University for GFEDv2 emission data and Christine Wiedinmyer and Gabriele Pfister for valuable reviews of the manuscript. H. Friedli and A. Arellano are funded by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Nicola Pirrone and Sergio Cinnirella would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Ministry of Environment for its support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans R. Friedli
    • 1
  • Avelino F. ArellanoJr
    • 1
  • Sergio Cinnirella
    • 2
  • Nicola Pirrone
    • 3
  1. 1.National Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA
  2. 2.CNR-Institute for Atmospheric Pollution, Division of RendeRendeItaly
  3. 3.CNR-Institute for Atmospheric PollutionRomeItaly

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