Mercury emissions from coal combustion in China
This chapter reviews the magnitude and spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China. Due to the large quantities of coal burned and the relatively low level of technology, particularly in industry, emissions are high. Emissions were stable at about 200-210 Mg during the period 1995-2000, but because of rapid economic growth starting in 2001, mercury emissions grew quickly to a value of 334 Mg in 2005. The annual average growth rate for the period 1995-2005 was 5.1%. The uncertainty in emission estimates is about ±35% (95% confidence intervals). Emissions are concentrated in those provinces with high concentrations of mercury in coal (like Guizhou Province) and provinces in which a lot of coal is burned (like Shanxi Province). Because significant amounts of coal are burned in homes and small industrial facilities, without any kind of emission control at all, emissions of particulate mercury are higher in China than in the developed world; the speciation profile nationwide is: 64% Hg(II), 19% Hg(p), and 17% Hg0. In the future, growth in mercury emissions is expected to be limited by the application of FGD for SO2 control and other advanced technologies. Estimates of emissions are hampered by the lack of comprehensive and reliable emissions testing programs in China.
KeywordsCoal Combustion Selective Catalytic Reduction Mercury Content Power Sector Coal Consumption
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea, and China as observed during the 2001 ACE-Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19S25, doi:10.1029/2003JD004244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang, W., Yang, Y., 2002. Mercury in coal in China. Coal Geology of China, 14, 37-40 (in Chinese with abstract in English).Google Scholar
- Huang, Y., Jin, B., Zhong, Z., Zhou, H., 2003. Study on groups of trace elements during coal combustion. Journal of Southeast University, Natural Science Edition, 33, 148-152 (in Chinese with abstract in English).Google Scholar
- NBS, 1998-2007. China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (1991-2005). National Bureau of Statistics of China, China Statistics Press, Beijing, P.R. China.Google Scholar
- Pan, L., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2006. Regional distribution and emissions of mercury in east Asia: A modeling analysis of Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) observations. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07109, doi:10.1029/2005JD006381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Streets D.G., Bond T.C., Carrnichael G.R., Fernandes S.D., Fu Q., He D., Klimont Z., Nelson S.M., Tsai N.Y., Wang M.Q., Woo J.-H., Yarber K.F., 2000. An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108, D21, 8809, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093.Google Scholar
- Wang, Q., Ma, R., 1997. The mercury in coal and its cinder. China Environ. Sci., 17, 76-79 (in Chinese with abstract in English).Google Scholar
- Wang, Q., Shen, W., Ma, Z., 1999. The estimation of mercury emission from coal combustion in China, China Environ. Sci., 19, 318-321 (in Chinese with abstract in English).Google Scholar
- Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., 2006b. Mercury emissions from China: Current status and future trend. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Air & Waste Management Association 99th Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
- Zhang, J., Ren, D., Xu, D., Zhao, F., 1999. Mercury in coal and its effect on environment. Advances in Environmental Science , 7, 100-104 (in Chinese with abstract in English).Google Scholar
- Zhang, M.Q., Zhu, Y.C., Deng, R.W., 2002. Evaluation of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal combustion, China. Ambio , 31, 482-484.Google Scholar
- Zhu, Z., Xu, L., Tan, Y., 2002. Research on characteristics of mercury distribution in combustion products for a 300MW pulverized coal fired boiler. Power Engineering , 22, 1594-1597 (in Chinese with abstract in English).Google Scholar