Nodal Staging of Cancer Using Diagnostic Optical Imaging Techniques



In 2007, approximately 1.5 million Americans were diagnosed with invasive carcinomas (American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures, 2007). For the majority of these patients, their disease was staged using the TNM disease classification approved by the American Joint Committee on Cancer whereby Tumor extent, regional lymph Node involvement, and presence or absence of distant Metastases are determined. Anatomical imaging with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), or ultrasound (US) typically provides a measurement of the size and extent of the locoregional disease while distant metastases in advanced disease are detected through whole-body nuclear bone scanning or positron emission tomography (PET).


Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Nodal Staging Isosulfan Blue Molecular Imaging Agent 



axillary lymph node dissection


breast cancer-related lymphedema


charge coupled device


computed tomography


human epidermal growth factor receptor-2








hematoxylin and eosin


lymph nodes


magnetic resonance




positron emission tomography


pelvic lymph node dissection


reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


single photon emission computed tomography


lymph node biopsy


sentinel lymph node


ultrasmall iron oxide particles


and ultrasound



This work was supported in part by R01 CA112679 and R01 CA136404.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Brown Foundation for Molecular MedicineThe University of Texas Health Science Center, Center of Molecular ImagingHoustonUSA

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