Airborne Transmission: Influenza and Tuberculosis
Seasonal influenza occurs in waves and can vary in strength. It affects all age groups, but mainly little children and the elderly. In Germany, about 10,000 people die each year from seasonal influenza, mostly elderly people. The death rate is associated with the influenza strain: H3N2 subtype causes a higher death toll than H1N1. Children play an important role in spread and transmission dynamics during an influenza wave (winter holidays may delay the peak of an influenza wave).
KeywordsAvian Influenza Tuberculosis Control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Pandemic Preparedness Pandemic Vaccine
- National Pandemic Preparedness Plan Germany (in German). http://www.rki.de (latest access: May 2009)
- Nicholson KG, Webster RG, Hay AJ (eds.) (1998) Textbook of influenza. 1st edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- WHO Global Influenza PreparednessPlan, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/pandemic/en/, (latest access: May 2009); published in 2005; update in progress, planned for May 2009.
- Atun RA, Samyshkin YA, Drobniewski F, Skuratova NM, Gusarova G, Kuznetsov SI, Fedorin IM, Coker RJ (2005) Barriers to sustainable tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation health system. Bull World Health Organ.; 83(3):217–23Google Scholar
- Kaufmann SHE, Hahn H (editors) (2002) Mycobacteria and TB, 1st edition (update in preparation); Karger Verlag; combines epidemiological aspects with basic research in tuberculosis Google Scholar
- Ridderhof JC, van Deun A, Man Kam K, Narayanan PR, Aziz MA (2007) Roles of laboratories and laboratory systems in effective tuberculosis programmes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85 (5): A-419; detailed overview about the WHO system of the supranational reference laboratory network.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rom WN, Garay SM, (editors) (2004) Tuberculosis. 2nd edition; Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; good chapters on infection epidemiology Google Scholar
- WHO Tuberculosis Report 2007 (2007). Global tuberculosis control – surveillance, planning, financing – WHO report on tuberculosis 2007. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2009/en/index.html (latest access: May 2009; excellent annual overview of the current development in TB numbers)
- WHO Fact Sheet EUTB/02 (2007). Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Europe; updated on the occasion of Ministerial Forum on Tuberculosis, state-of-the-art of evaluation of TB epidemiology Google Scholar