Cancer of the Ear
The ear consists of pinna (auricle), external auditory canal (EAC), tympanic membrane, middle ear (containing the auditory ossicles), and inner ear in the petrous portion of the temporal bone (consisting of the bony and membranous labyrinth). Primary middle ear and temporal bone tumors are rare, but external ear cutaneous malignancies may involve these structures. BCC >> SCC for malignancies of the external ear, but SCC accounts for 85% of EAC, middle ear, and mastoid tumors. Nodal metastases occur in <15% with lymphatic drainage to parotid, cervical, and postauricular nodes.
KeywordsTemporal Bone Tympanic Membrane External Auditory Canal Membranous Labyrinth Cartilage Invasion
We thank Dr. M. Kara Bucci for her contribution to this chapter in the first edition.
- Chao KSC, Devineni VR. Ear. In: Perez CA, Brady LW, Halperin EC, et al., editors. Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. pp. 800–806.Google Scholar
- Clark R, Soutar D. Lymph node metastases from auricular squamous cell carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2008;61:1140–1147.Google Scholar
- Madsen A, Gundgaard M, Hoff C, et al. Cancer of the external auditory canal and middle ear in Denmark from 1992 to 2001. Head Neck 2008;1332–1338.Google Scholar
- Chao and Devineni 2005, Hussey and Wen 2003, Jereczek-Fossa et al. 2003, Lin et al. 2000”Google Scholar
- Hussey DH, Wen B-C. The Temporal Bone, Ear, and Paraganglia. In: Cox JD, Ang KK, editors. Radiation Oncology: Rationale, Technique, Results. 8th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2003. pp. 293–309.Google Scholar
- Jereczek-Fossa B, Zarowski A, Milani F, et al. Radiotherapy-induced ear toxicity. Cancer Treat Rev 2003;29:417–430.Google Scholar
- Lin R, Hug E, Schaefer R, et al. Conformal proton radiation therapy of the posterior fossa: a study comparing protons with three-dimensional planned photons in limiting dose to auditory structures. IJROBP 2000;48:1219–1226.Google Scholar