Advertisement

Urethral Cancer

  • Siavash Jabbari
  • Eric K. Hansen
  • Alexander R. Gottschalk
Chapter

Abstract

Female urethra is ∼4 cm long. Muscular layer is continuous with that of the bladder. Two sphincters: internal at bladder neck and voluntary sphincter at plane of urogenital diaphragm. Proximal 1/3 epithelium = transitional cells. Distal 2/3 epithelium = nonkeratinizing squamous cells. Periurethral Skene’s glands secrete mucous near meatus (and extend along distal urethra). Carcinoma of urethra is rare (<0.1% of cancers). 70% = squamous cell CA 10–15% = TCC 10–15% = adenoCA Rare = melanoma, lymphomas, mets, adenoid cystic Average age is 60 (50–80) years. May be associated with HPV 16. Female urethra cancer more common than male urethral cancer (4:1). Male urethral CA. Urethral location: bulbomembranous 60%, penile 30%, prostatic 10% Histology: 75% squamous cell CA LN spread is to inguinal and pelvic LN (including presacral and obturator). T1 lesions = uncommon. T2–T3 lesions = 35–50% of cases. For urethra, clinically involved LN are almost always pathologically involved (vs. penile carcinoma only ∼50% are pathologically involved). At presentation, ∼10% of patients have DM. Most important prognostic factors = tumor size, local invasion, and location (distal more favorable).

Keywords

Bladder Neck Urethral Stricture Urethral Orifice Distal Urethra Female Urethra 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Amin MB, Young RH. Primary carcinomas of the urethra. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1997;14(2):147-160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen MS, Triaca V, Billmeyer B, et al. Coordinated chemoradiation therapy with genital preservation for the treatment of primary invasive carcinoma of the male urethra. J Urol. 2008;179(2):536-541; discussion 541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dalbagni G, Zhang ZF, Lacombe L, Herr HW. Male urethral carcinoma: analysis of treatment outcome. Urology. 1999;53(6):1126-1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis JW, Schellhammer PF, Schlossberg SM. Conservative surgical therapy for penile and urethral carcinoma. Urology. 1999;53(2):386-392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eng TY. Female Urethra. In: Perez CA, Brady LW, Halperin EC, editors. Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. pp. 1682-1691.Google Scholar
  6. Foens CS, Hussey DH, Staples JJ, Doornbos JF, Wen BC, Vigliotti AP. A comparison of the roles of surgery and radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the female urethra. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991;21(4):961-968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Forman JD, Lichter AS. The role of radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the male and female urethra. Urol Clin North Am. 1992;19(2):383-389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58(2):71-96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kuettel MR, Parda DS, Harter KW, Rodgers JE, Lynch JH. Treatment of female urethral carcinoma in medically inoperable patients using external beam irradiation and high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy. J Urol. 1997;157(5):1669-1671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Manur DB, Chao KS. Penis and Male Urethra. In: Perez CA, Brady LW, Halperin EC, editors. Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. pp. 1519-1531.Google Scholar
  11. Micaily B, Dzeda MF, Miyamoto CT, Brady LW. Brachytherapy for cancer of the female urethra. Semin Surg Oncol. 1997;13(3):208-214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mostofi FK, Davis CJ, Jr., Sesterhenn IA. Carcinoma of the male and female urethra. Urol Clin North Am. 1992;19(2):347-358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. VanderMolen LA, Sheehy PF, Dillman RO. Successful treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra with chemotherapy. Cancer Invest. 2002;20(2):206-207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siavash Jabbari
    • 1
  • Eric K. Hansen
    • 2
  • Alexander R. Gottschalk
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiation OncologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology, The Oregon ClinicProvidence St. Vincent Medical CenterPortlandUS

Personalised recommendations