Third most frequently diagnosed cancer in the US men and women. 108,070 new cases of colon cancer and 40,740 new cases of rectal cancer in the US in 2008. Combined mortality for colorectal cancer 49,960 in 2008. Rectum begins at the rectosigmoid junction at level of S3 vertebra. It is divided into three ∼5 cm segments by transverse folds: upper, mid, lower rectum. Cancer of rectum is defined as those straddling or inferior to the peritoneal reflection. Rectal nodal drainage: superior half rectum drains to pararectal, sacral, sigmoidal, inferior mesenteric; inferior half rectum drains to internal iliacs; lower rectum and tumors extending to anal canal may drain to superficial inguinal nodes.
KeywordsCircumferential Resection Margin Sphincter Saving Surgery External Iliac Node Energy Photon Beam Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial
We thank Richard M. Krieg, M.D., for his valuable advice in the preparation of this chapter.
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