Esophageal Cancer

  • Charlotte Dai Kubicky
  • Hans T. Chung
  • Marc B. Nash


Esophageal cancer accounts for 5% of all GI cancers. There are 16,470 new cases and 14,280 deaths from esophageal cancer each year in the US. It is the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Incidence increases with age, peaks at sixth to seventh decade. Male:female = 3.5:1. African-American males:White males = 5:1. Most common in China, Iran, South Africa, India, and the former Soviet Union. Risk factors: tobacco, EtOH, nitrosamines, Tylosis (congenitalhyperkeratosis), Plummer Vinson syndrome, achalasia, GERD, and Barrett’s esophagus. Four regions of the esophagus: Cervical = cricoid cartilage to thoracicinlet (15–18 cm from the incisor). Upper thoracic = thoracicinlet to tracheal bifurcation (18–24 cm). Midthoracic = tracheal bifurcation to just above the GE junction (24–32 cm). Lower thoracic = GE junction (32–40 cm).


Esophageal Cancer Gastric Cardia Transhiatal Esophagectomy Cervical Anastomosis Tracheal Bifurcation 
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We thank Richard M. Krieg, for his valuable advice in the preparation of this chapter.



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  4. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Esophageal Cancer. Available at: Accessed on May 04, 2009.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte Dai Kubicky
    • 1
  • Hans T. Chung
    • 2
  • Marc B. Nash
    • 3
  1. 1.Radiation MedicineOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer CentreUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Radiation OncologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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