Advertisement

Breast Cancer

  • Siavash Jabbari
  • Catherine Park
  • Barbara Fowble
Chapter

Abstract

Most common cancer (excluding skin) among women in the United States, with a lifetime risk of ∼13.4%. Approximately 184,450 invasive and 67,770 in situ cases/year in the United States. Recent decline in incidence attributed in part to decreased use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Second leading cause of cancer deaths in women (40,500 deaths/year in the United States). Decreased incidence and increased mortality rates in African-Americans as compared to whites. Most important risk factor for breast cancer development is age. Risk also affected by age at menarche, first pregnancy, menopause, family history, and mammographic breast density. Use of exogenous estrogen increases risk for breast cancer.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Inflammatory Breast Cancer Recurrence Score Breast Conservation Surgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank the first edition authors of this chapter: Allen Chen, Alison Bevan, and Lawrence W. Margolis.

References

References

  1. Arthur DW, Cuttino LW, Neuschatz AC, et al. Tumor bed boost omission after negative re-excision in breast-conservation treatment. Ann Surg Oncol 2006;13(6):794-801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arthur D, Vicini F, Kuske RR, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an updated report from the American Brachytherapy Society. Brachytherapy 2003:2:124–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arthur DW, Winter K, Kuske RR, et al. A Phase II trial of brachytherapy alone after lumpectomy for select breast cancer: tumor control and survival outcomes of RTOG 95-17. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;72(2):467-473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bentzen SM, Agrawal RK, Aird EG, et al. The UK Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) Trial A of radiotherapy hypofractionation for treatment of early breast cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2008a;9(4):331-341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentzen SM, Agrawal RK, Aird EG, et al. The UK Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) Trial B of radiotherapy hypofractionation for treatment of early breast cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 2008;371(9618):1098-1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bijker N, Meijnen P, Peterse JL, et al. Breast-conserving treatment with or without radiotherapy in ductal carcinoma-in-situ: ten-year results of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized phase III trial 10853 a study by the EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and EORTC Radiotherapy Group. J Clin Oncol. Jul 20 2006;24(21):3381-3387.Google Scholar
  7. Buchholz TA, Lehman CD, Harris JR, et al. Statement of the science concerning locoregional treatments after preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer: a National Cancer Institute conference. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(5):791-797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen AM, Meric-Bernstam F, Hunt KK, et al. Breast conservation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:2303-2312.Google Scholar
  9. Chen RC, Lin NU, Golshan M, Harris JR, Bellon JR. Internal mammary nodes in breast cancer: diagnosis and implications for patient management a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. Oct 20 2008;26(30):4981-4989.Google Scholar
  10. Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, et al. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol 2003;21(8):1431-1439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demirci S, Nam J, Hubbs JL, Nguyen T, Marks LB. Radiation-induced cardiac toxicity after therapy for breast cancer: interaction between treatment era and follow-up duration. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Mar 15 2009;73(4):980-987.Google Scholar
  12. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview o f the randomized trials. Lancet 2005;365:1687-1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomized trials. Lancet 2005;366:2087-2106.Google Scholar
  14. Fisher B, Bryant J, Dignam JJ, et al. Tamoxifen, radiation therapy, or both for prevention of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after lumpectomy in women with invasive breast cancers of one centimeter or less. J Clin Oncol 2002;20(20):4141-4149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fisher B, Bryant J, Dignam JL, et al. Tamoxifen, radiation therapy, or both for prevention of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after lumpectomy in women with invasive breast cancers of one centimeter or less. N Engl J Med 2002c;20:4141-4149.Google Scholar
  16. Fisher B, Bryant J, Wolmark N, et al. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998a;16:2672-2685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fisher B, Dignam J, Wolmark N, et al. Lumpectomy and radiation therapy for the treatment of intraductal breast cancer: findings from the national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project B-17. J Clin Oncol 1998c;16:441-452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisher B, Dignam J, Wolmark N, et al. Tamoxifen in treatment of intraductal breast cancer: national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project B-24 randomized controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:1993-2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fisher B, Jeong JH, Bryant J, et al. Treatment of lymph-node-negative, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer: long-term findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2004;364(9437):858-868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fisher B, Land S, Mamounas E, et al. Prevention of invasive breast cancer in women with ductal carcinoma in situ: an update of the national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project experience. Semin Oncol 2001b;28:400-418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher ER, Land SR, Saad RS, et al. Pathologic variables predictive of breast events in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. Am J Clin Pathol 2007;128(1):86-91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freedman GM, Fowble BL, Nicolaou N, et al. Should internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer be a target for the radiation oncologist? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Mar 1 2000; 46(4): 805-814.Google Scholar
  23. Fyles AW, McCready DR, Manchul LA, et al. Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women 50 years of age or older with early stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:963-970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Schippinger W, et al. Endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2009;360(7):679-691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodwin A, Parker S, Ghersi D, Wilcken N. Post-operative radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD000563.Google Scholar
  26. Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1793-1802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harris EE. Cardiac mortality and morbidity after breast cancer treatment. Cancer Control. Apr 2008;15(2):120-129.Google Scholar
  28. Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, et al. Improved outcomes from adding sequential Paclitaxel but not from escalating Doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. Mar 15 2003;21(6):976-983.Google Scholar
  29. Holli K, Hietanen P, Saaristo R, Huhtala H, Hakama M, Joensuu H. Radiotherapy after segmental resection of breast cancer with favorable prognostic features: 12-year follow-up results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. Feb 20 2009;27(6):927-932.Google Scholar
  30. Holmberg L, Garmo H, Granstrand B, et al. Absolute risk reductions for local recurrence after postoperative radiotherapy after sector resection for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(8):1247-1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang EH, Strom EA, Perkins GH, et al. Comparison of risk of local-regional recurrence after mastectomy or breast conservation therapy for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation stratified according to a prognostic index score. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;66(2):352-357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang EH, Tucker SL, Strom EA, et al. Postmastectomy radiation improves local-regional control and survival for selected patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:4639-4647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hughes KS, Schnaper LA, Berry D, et al. Lumpectomy plus tamoxifen with or without irradiation in women 70 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:71-977.Google Scholar
  34. Hughes LL, Wang M, Page DL, et al. Local excision alone without irradiation for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. Nov 10 2009;27(32):5319-5324.Google Scholar
  35. Jones S, Holmes FA, O’Shaughnessy J, et al. Docetaxel With cyclophosphamide is associated with an overall survival benefit compared with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: 7-year follow-up of US Oncology Research Trial 9735. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:1177-1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Julien JP, Bijker N, Fentiman IS, et al. Radiotherapy in breast conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: first results of the EORTC randomized phase III trial 10853. Lancet 2000;353:528-533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Katz A, Strom EA, Buchholz TA, et al. Locoregional recurrence patterns after mastectomy and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy: implications for postoperative irradiation. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2817-2827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim T, Giuliano AE, Lyman GH. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast carcinoma: a metaanalysis. Cancer 2006;106(1):4-16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuerer HM, Newman LA, Smith TL, et al. Clinical course of breast cancer patients with complete pathological primary tumor and axillary lymph node response to doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1999;14:460-469.Google Scholar
  40. Liljegren G, Holmberg L, Bergh J, et al. 10-Year results after sector resection with or without postoperative radiotherapy for stage I breast cancer: a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 1999;17(8):2326-2333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Louis-Sylvestre C, Clough K, Asselain B, et al. Axillary treatment in conservative management of operable breast cancer: dissection or radiotherapy? Results of a randomized study with 15 years of follow-up. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(1):97-101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, et al. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(16):3686-3696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mieog JS, van der Hage JA, van de Velde CJ. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer. Br J Surg 2007;94(10):1189-1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paik S, Shak S, Tang G, et al. A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. Dec 30 2004; 351(27): 2817-2826.Google Scholar
  45. Paik S, Tang G, Shak S, et al. Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(23):3726-3734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-postive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1659-1672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Prosnitz RG, Hubbs JL, Evans ES, et al. Prospective assessment of radiotherapy-associated cardiac toxicity in breast cancer patients: analysis of data 3 to 6 years after treatment. Cancer 2007;110(8):1840-1850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rebbeck TR, Kauff ND, Domchek SM. Meta-analysis of risk reduction estimates associated with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101(2):80-87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Recht A, Gray R, Davidson NE, et al. Locoregional failure 10 years after mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen without irradiation: experience of the easten cooperative oncology group. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:1689-1700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, et al. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1673-1684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sartor CI, Peterson BL, Woolf S, et al. Effect of addition of adjuvant paclitaxel on radiotherapy delivery and locoregional control of node-positive breast cancer: cancer and leukemia group B 9344. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(1):30-40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57(2):75-89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Silverstein MJ. The University of Southern California/Van Nuys prognostic index for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Am J Surg 2003;186:337-343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Strom EA, Woodward WA, Katz A, et al. Clinical investigation: regional nodal failure patterns in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;63(5):1508-1513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Taghian A, Jeong JH, Mamounas E, et al. Patterns of locoregional failure in patients with operable breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen and without radiotherapy: results from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(21):4247-4254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) Trialists Group. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomized trial. Lancet 2002;359:2131-2139.Google Scholar
  57. Truong PT, Woodward WA, Thames HD, Ragaz J, Olivotto IA, Buchholz TA. The ratio of positive to excised nodes identifies high-risk subsets and reduces inter-institutional differences in locoregional recurrence risk estimates in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes: an analysis of prospective data from British Columbia and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;68(1):59-65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. UK Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research. Radiotherapy and tamoxifen in women with completely excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand: randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362:95-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. van der Vijver MJ, He YD, van’t Veer LJ, et al. A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer. New Engl J Med 2002;347(25):1999-2009.Google Scholar
  60. Van Dongen JA, Voogd AC, Fentiman IS, Legrand C, et al. Long-term results of a randomized trial comparing breast-conserving therapy with mastectomy: European organization for research and treatment of cancer 10801 trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1143-1150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vicini FA, Kestin L, Chen P, et al. Limited-field radiation therapy in the management of early stage breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1205-1211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vinh-Hung V, Verkooijen HM, Fioretta G, et al. Lymph node ratio as an alternative to pN staging in node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27(7):1062-1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. Jama. Jun 21 2006;295(23):2727-2741.Google Scholar
  64. Whelan TJ, Julian J, Wright J, et al. Does locoregional radiation therapy improve survival in breast cancer? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1220-1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Whelan TJ, Pignol JP, Levine MN, et al. Long-term results of hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. Feb 11;362(6):513-520.Google Scholar
  66. Wong JS, Kaelin CM, Troyan SL, et al. Prospective study of wide excision alone for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:1031-1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Arriagada R, Le MG, Mouriesse H, et al. Long-term effect of internal mammary chain treatment. Results of a multivariate analysis of 1195 patients with operable breast cancer and positive axillary nodes. Radiother Oncol 1988;11:213-222.Google Scholar
  2. Bartelink H, Horiot JC, Poortsmans P, et al. Recurrence rates after treatment of breast cancer with standard radiotherapy with or without additional radiation. N Engl J Med 2001;245:1378-1387.Google Scholar
  3. Bellon JR, Come SE, Belman RS, et al. Sequencing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in early-stage breast cancer: updated results of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:1934-1940.Google Scholar
  4. Bijker N, Peterse JL, Duchateau L, et al. Risk factors for recurrence and metastases after breast-conserving therapy for ductal carcinoma in-situ: analysis of European organization for research and treatment cancer trial 10853. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:226-2271.Google Scholar
  5. Boice JD, Harvey EB, Blettner M, et al. Cancer in the contralateral breast after radiotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1992;326:781-785.Google Scholar
  6. Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, et al. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med 1995;332:901-906.Google Scholar
  7. Brito RA, Valero V, Buzdar AU, et al. Long-term results of combined-modality therapy for locally advanced breast cancer with ipsilateral supraclavicular metastases: the university of texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:628-633.Google Scholar
  8. Buchholz TA, Tucker SL, Masullo L, et al. Predictors of local-regional recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy without radiation. J Clin Oncol 2001;20:17-23.Google Scholar
  9. Burstein HJ, Polyak K, Wong JS, et al. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1430-1441.Google Scholar
  10. Carlson RW, Allred DC, Anderson BO, et al. Breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2009;7(2):122-192.Google Scholar
  11. Chen AM, Obedian E, Haffty BG. Breast-conserving therapy in the setting of collagen vascular disease. Cancer J 2001;7:480-491.Google Scholar
  12. Cole BF, Gelber RD, Gelber S, et al. Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomized clinical trials with quality-adjusted survival analysis. Lancet 2001;358:277-286.Google Scholar
  13. Cuzick J, Stewart H, Rutqvist L, et al. Cause-specific mortality in long-term survivors of breast cancer who participated in trials of radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:447-453.Google Scholar
  14. D’Orsi CJ. The American College of Radiology mammography lexicon: an initial attempt to standardize terminology. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996;166(4):779-780.Google Scholar
  15. Ellis MJ, Rigden CE. Initial versus sequential adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy: a review of the current data. Curr Med Res Opin. Dec 2006;22(12):2479-2487.Google Scholar
  16. Esserman L, Kaplan E, Partridge S, et al. MRI phenotype is associated with response to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage III breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2001;8:549-559.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002a;347:1233-1241.Google Scholar
  18. Fisher B, Cosantino J, Redmond C, et al. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor positive tumors. N Engl J Med 1989;320:479-484.Google Scholar
  19. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998b;90:1371-1388.Google Scholar
  20. Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, et al. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: updated findings from the national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001a;93:684-690.Google Scholar
  21. Fisher B, Dignam J, Wolmark N, et al. Tamoxifen and chemotherapy for lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:1673-1682.Google Scholar
  22. Fisher B, Jeong JH, Anderson S, et al. Twenty-five year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing radical mastectomy, total mastectomy, and total mastectomy followed by irradiation. N Engl J Med 2002d;347:567-575.Google Scholar
  23. Forrest AP, Stewart HJ, Everington D, et al. Randomized controlled trial of conservation therapy for breast cancer: 6-year analysis of the Scottish trial. Lancet 1996;348:708-713.Google Scholar
  24. Fowble B, Gray R, Gilchrist K, et al. Identification of a subgroup of patients with breast cancer and histologically positive axillary lymph nodes receiving adjuvant chemotherapy who may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1107-1117.Google Scholar
  25. Freedman GM, Anderson PR, Li T, Nicolaou N. Locoregional recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery and radiation. Cancer. Mar 1 2009;115(5):946-951.Google Scholar
  26. Gage I, Schnitt SJ, Nixon AJ, et al. Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. Cancer 1996;78:1921-1928.Google Scholar
  27. Galper S, Recht A, Silver B, et al. Factors associated with regional nodal failure in patients with early stage breast cancer with 0-3 positive axillary lymph nodes following tangential irradiation alone. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;45:1157-1166.Google Scholar
  28. Haffty BG, Fischer D, Rose M, et al. Prognostic factors for local recurrence in the conservatively treated breast cancer patient: a cautious interpretation of the data. J Clin Oncol 1991;9:997-1003.Google Scholar
  29. Harris JR, Halpin-Murphy P, McNeese M, et al. Consensus statement on postmastectomy radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;44:989-990.Google Scholar
  30. Jaiyesimi IA, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN, et al. Inflammatory breast cancer: a review. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:1014-1024.Google Scholar
  31. Katz A, Buchholz TA, Strom EA, et al. Recursive partitioning analysis of locoregional recurrence following mastectomy and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy: implications for postoperative irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;50:397-403.Google Scholar
  32. Krag DN, Anderson SJ, Julian TB, et al. Technical outcomes of sentinel-lymph-node resection and conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer: results from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase III trial. Lancet Oncol. Oct 2007;8(10):881-888.Google Scholar
  33. Krag D, Weaver D, Ashikaga A, et al. The sentinel node in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1998;339: 941-946.Google Scholar
  34. Meric F, Buchholz TA, Mirza NQ, et al. Long-term complications associated with breast-conservation surgery and radiotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol 2002;9:543-549.Google Scholar
  35. Morrow M, Strom EA, Bassett LW, et al. Standard for breast conservation therapy in the management of breast carcinoma. CA Cancer J Clin 2002;52:277-230.Google Scholar
  36. NCCN practice guidelines. Screening for and evaluation of suspicious breast lesions. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Oncology (Williston Park) 1998;12(11A):89-138.Google Scholar
  37. Olson JE, Neuberg D, Pandya KJ, et al. The role of radiotherapy in the management of operable locally advanced breast carcinoma. Cancer 1997;79:1138-1149.Google Scholar
  38. Overgaard M, Hansen PS, Overgaard J, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk premenopausal women with breast cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 1997;337:949-955.Google Scholar
  39. Overgaard M, Jensen MB, Overgaard J, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy In high-risk postmenopausal breast cancer patients given adjuvant tamoxifen: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group DBCG 82c randomized trial. Lancet 1999;353:1641-1648.Google Scholar
  40. Park CC, Mitsumori M, Nixon A, et al. Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1668-1675.Google Scholar
  41. Patel RR, Christensen ME, Hodge CW, Adkison JB, Das RK. Clinical outcome analysis in “high-risk” versus “low-risk” patients eligible for national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel B-39/radiation therapy oncology group 0413 trial: five-year results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;70(4):970-973.Google Scholar
  42. Ragaz J, Jackson SM, Le N, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in node-positive premenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1997;337:956-962.Google Scholar
  43. Ragaz J, Olivotto I, Spinelli J, et al. Locoregional radiation therapy in patients with high-risk breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: 20-year results of the British Columbia randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:116-126.Google Scholar
  44. Rastogi P, Anderson SJ, Bear HD, et al. Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocols B-18 and B-27. J Clin Oncol. Feb 10 2008;26(5):778-785.Google Scholar
  45. Recht A, Come SE, Henderson IC, et al. The sequencing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy after conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1356-1361.Google Scholar
  46. Recht A, Edge SB, Solin LJ, et al. Postmastectomy radiotherapy: guidelines of the American society of clinical oncology. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:1539-1569.Google Scholar
  47. Romestaing P, Lehingue Y, Carrie C, et al. Role of a 10-Gy boost in the conservative treatment of early breast cancer: results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:963-968.Google Scholar
  48. Shapiro CL, Recht A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1997-2008.Google Scholar
  49. Silverstein MJ, Lagios MD, Groshen S, et al. The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1455-1461.Google Scholar
  50. Singletary SE, McNeese MD, Hortobagyi GN, et al. Feasibility of breast-conservation surgery after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma. Cancer 1992;69:2849-2852.Google Scholar
  51. Strom EA, McNeese MD. Postmastectomy irradiation: rationale for treatment field selection. Semin Radiat Oncol 1999;9:247-253.Google Scholar
  52. Taylor ME, Haffty BG, Rabinovitch R, et al. ACR appropriateness criteria on postmastectomy radiotherapy expert panel on radiation oncology-breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73(4):997-1002.Google Scholar
  53. Veronesi U, Cascinelli N, Mariani L, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1227-1232.Google Scholar
  54. Veronesi U, Luini A, Del Vecchio M, et al. Radiotherapy after breast-preserving surgery in women with localized cancer of the breast. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1587-1591.Google Scholar
  55. Veronesi U, Marubini E, Marian L, et al. Radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in small breast carcinoma: long-term results of a randomized trial. Ann Oncol 2001;12:997-1003.Google Scholar
  56. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, et al. Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy as a staging procedure in breast cancer: update of a randomised controlled study. Lancet Oncol 2006;7(12):983-990.Google Scholar
  57. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, et al. Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy as a staging procedure in breast cancer: update of a randomised controlled study. Lancet Oncol. Dec 2006;7(12):983-990.Google Scholar
  58. Veronesi U, Saccozzi R, Del Vecchio M, et al. Comparing radical mastectomy with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy in patients with small cancers of the breast. N Engl J Med 1981;305:6-11.Google Scholar
  59. Veronesi U, Salvadori, Luini A, et al. Breast conservation is a safe method in patients with small cancer of the breast: long-term results of three randomized trials on 1973 patients. Eur J Cancer 1995;31:1574-1599.Google Scholar
  60. Veronesi U, Zucali R, Luini A. Local control and survival in early breast cancer: the Milan Trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Bio Phys 1986;12:717-720.Google Scholar
  61. Whelan T, MacKenzie R, Julian J, et al. Randomized trial of breast irradiation schedules after lumpectomy for women with lymph node-negative breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94(15):1143-1150.Google Scholar
  62. Wong JS, Recht A, Beard CJ, et al. Treatment outcome after tangential radiation therapy without axillary dissection in patients with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;39:915-920.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siavash Jabbari
    • 1
  • Catherine Park
    • 2
  • Barbara Fowble
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiation OncologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations