The History of Ptosis Surgery

  • Mithra O. Gonzalez
  • Vikram D. Durairaj


From an inexact origin of trial and error, blepharoptosis surgery has become a ­scientific art. The arc of its technical development parallels that of anatomical discoveries and surgical materials. Approaches have varied, as have the tissues of interest, and with increasingly reliable results in the reconstructive domain came greater expectations and the development of its cosmetic counterpart. That said, for some diseases associated with blepharoptosis, an ideal surgery remains elusive. This chapter provides a chronological account of the treatment of ­blepharoptosis with attention paid to the tissues involved. The rich history of blepharoptosis surgery provides a fertile matrix for the field of oculofacial plastic surgery, and in return, the field continues to evolve blepharoptosis’ surgical treatment.


External Approach Superior Rectus Frontalis Muscle Servat Procedure Frontalis Suspension 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Colorado Denver School of MedicineDenverUSA

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