Renal and Fluid–Electrolyte Disorders
An acidosis is any process that tends (in the absence of buffering or compensation) to cause the accumulation of hydrogen ions (H+). If the pH of the blood is lower than normal (<7.35), acidemia is present. Similarly, any process that tends to cause the accumulation of bicarbonate (HCO3) is an alkalosis. An elevated blood pH (>7.45) is referred to as alkalemia. When the acid–base disturbance arises as a result of changes in the carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) of the blood, a respiratory process is present.