Renal and Fluid–Electrolyte Disorders

  • Joseph Varon
  • Pilar Acosta


An acidosis is any process that tends (in the absence of buffering or compensation) to cause the accumulation of hydrogen ions (H+). If the pH of the blood is lower than normal (<7.35), acidemia is present. Similarly, any process that tends to cause the accumulation of bicarbonate (HCO3) is an alkalosis. An elevated blood pH (>7.45) is referred to as alkalemia. When the acid–base disturbance arises as a result of changes in the carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) of the blood, a respiratory process is present.


Peritoneal Dialysis Acute Renal Failure Intensive Care Unit Patient Acute Tubular Necrosis Renal Tubular Acidosis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas Health Science CenterHoustonUSA

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