Shortness of Breath

  • Jonathan P. Parsons


Exercise is rarely limited by pulmonary causes in healthy individuals. During exercise, large, steep rises in ventilatory demands are met efficiently by the respiratory system while maintaining a substantial breathing reserve. The respiratory system including the lungs and chest wall are often considered “overbuilt” in meeting the demands of exercise.


Chronic Asthma Athletic Trainer Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Vocal Cord Dysfunction Rescue Inhaler 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Rundell KW, Jenkinson DM. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in the elite athlete. Sports Med 2002; 32:583–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gotshall RW. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Drugs 2002; 62:1725–1739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parsons JP, Kaeding C, Phillips G, et al. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in a cohort of varsity college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39:1487–1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parsons JP, Mastronarde JG. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in athletes. Chest 2005; 128:3966–3974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McFadden ER, Jr., Lenner KA, Strohl KP. Postexertional airway rewarming and thermally induced asthma. New insights into pathophysiology and possible pathogenesis. J Clin Invest 1986; 78:18–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson SD, Daviskas E. The mechanism of exercise-induced asthma is. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106:453–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Finnerty JP, Holgate ST. Evidence for the roles of histamine and prostaglandins as mediators in exercise-induced asthma: the inhibitory effect of terfenadine and flurbiprofen alone and in combination. Eur Respir J 1990; 3:540–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hallstrand TS, Moody MW, Wurfel MM, et al. Inflammatory basis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 172:679–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Helenius I, Haahtela T. Allergy and asthma in elite summer sport athletes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106:444–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brauer M, Spengler JD. Nitrogen dioxide exposures inside ice skating rinks. Am J Public Health 1994; 84:429–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Peden DB. Air pollutants, exercise, and risk of developing asthma in children. Clin J Sport Med 2003; 13:62–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brudno DS, Wagner JM, Rupp NT. Length of postexercise assessment in the determination of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Ann Allergy 1994; 73:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Godfrey S. Clinical variables of exercise-induced bronchospasm. In: Dempsey J, ed. Muscular exercise and the lung. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1977; 247–288Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holzer K, Brukner P. Screening of athletes for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clin J Sport Med 2004; 14:134–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wilber RL, Rundell KW, Szmedra L, et al. Incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in Olympic winter sport athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32:732–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hallstrand TS, Curtis JR, Koepsell TD, et al. Effectiveness of screening examinations to detect unrecognized exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. J Pediatr 2002; 141:343–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parsons JP, O’Brien JM, Lucarelli MR, et al. Differences in the evaluation and management of exercise-induced bronchospasm between family physicians and pulmonologists. J Asthma 2006; 43:379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rundell KW, Wilber RL, Szmedra L, et al. Exercise-induced asthma screening of elite athletes: field versus laboratory exercise challenge. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32:309–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson SD, Fitch K, Perry CP, et al. Responses to bronchial challenge submitted for approval to use inhaled beta2-agonists before an event at the 2002 Winter Olympics. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111:45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eliasson AH, Phillips YY, Rajagopal KR, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of bronchial provocation testing. An evaluation of four techniques in exercise-induced bronchospasm. Chest 1992; 102:347–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holzer K, Anderson SD, Douglass J. Exercise in elite summer athletes: Challenges for diagnosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110:374–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rundell KW, Anderson SD, Spiering BA, et al. Field exercise vs laboratory eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation to identify airway hyperresponsiveness in elite cold weather athletes. Chest 2004; 125:909–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holzer K, Anderson SD, Chan HK, et al. Mannitol as a challenge test to identify exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167:534–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anderson SD, Argyros GJ, Magnussen H, et al. Provocation by eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea to identify exercise induced bronchoconstriction. Br J Sports Med 2001; 35:344–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel Report 3. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda, 2007Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McKenzie DC, McLuckie SL, Stirling DR. The protective effects of continuous and interval exercise in athletes with exercise-induced asthma. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26:951–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shturman-Ellstein RZR, Buckley JM, Souhrada JF. The beneficial effect of nasal breathing on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 118:65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schacter E. The protective effects of a cold weather mask on EIA. Ann Allergy 1982:12–16Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miller MG, Weiler JM, Baker R, et al. National athletic trainers’ association position statement: management of asthma in athletes. J Athl Train 2005; 40:224–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rundell KW, Spiering BA. Inspiratory stridor in elite athletes. Chest 2003; 123:468–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hicks M, Brugman SM, Katial R. Vocal cord dysfunction/paradoxical vocal fold motion. Prim Care 2008; 35:81–103, viiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McFadden ER, Jr., Zawadski DK. Vocal cord dysfunction masquerading as exercise-induced asthma. a physiologic cause for “choking” during athletic activities. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 153:942–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Torrego Fernandez A, Santos Perez S, Brea Folco J, et al. Dysfunction of the vocal cords simulating exercise-induced asthma. Arch Bronconeumol 2000; 36:533–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eisen GM, Sandler RS, Murray S, et al. The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications with Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pandolfino JE, Bianchi LK, Lee TJ, et al. Esophagogastric junction morphology predicts susceptibility to exercise-induced reflux. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99:1430–1436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jozkow P, Wasko-Czopnik D, Medras M, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and physical activity. Sports Med 2006; 36:385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Powell DM, Karanfilov BI, Beechler KB, et al. Paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction in juveniles. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 126:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Truwit J. Pulmonary disorders and exercise. Clin Sports Med 2003; 22:161–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OSU Asthma CenterThe Ohio State University Medical CenterColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations