Echocardiography and Advanced Cardiac Imaging in Athletes

  • Aaron L. Baggish
  • Kibar Yared
  • Malissa J. Wood
  • Adolph M. Hutter


The association between abnormalities of cardiac morphology and participation in athletic activity is well established. Initial reports of cardiac silhouette enlargement date back to the late 1890’s when Eugene Darling at Harvard used the rudimentary yet elegant physical examination skills of auscultation and percussion to demonstrate increased cardiac dimensions in Harvard rowers. Similar observations were made by the Swedish clinician Henschen in elite Nordic skiers.


Right Ventricular Right Ventricular Function Right Ventricular Dysfunction Left Ventricular Wall Thickness Right Ventricular Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Maron BJ, Pelliccia A. The heart of trained athletes: cardiac remodeling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation. 2006;114:1633–1644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morganroth J, Maron BJ, Henry WL, Epstein SE. Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82:521–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pelliccia A, Culasso F, Di Paolo FM, Maron BJ. Physiologic left ventricular cavity dilatation in elite athletes. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abernethy WB, Choo JK, Hutter AM Jr. Echocardiographic characteristics of professional football players. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:280–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Scharhag J, Schneider G, Urhausen A, Rochette V, Kramann B, Kindermann W. Athlete’s heart: right and left ventricular mass and function in male endurance athletes and untrained individuals determined by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:1856–1863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Camp SP, Bloor CM, Mueller FO, Cantu RC, Olson HG. Nontraumatic sports death in high school and college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:641–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maron BJ, Shirani J, Poliac LC, Mathenge R, Roberts WC, Mueller FO. Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical, demographic, and pathological profiles. JAMA. 1996;276:199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Savage DD, Seides SF, Clark CE, Henry WL, Maron BJ, Robinson FC, Epstein SE. Electrocardiographic findings in patients with obstructive and nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1978;58:402–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maron BJ, Mathenge R, Casey SA, Poliac LC, Longe TF. Clinical profile of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy identified de novo in rural communities. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:1590–1595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Culasso F, Di Paolo FM, Spataro A, Biffi A, Caselli G, Piovano P. Clinical significance of abnormal electrocardiographic patterns in trained athletes. Circulation. 2000;102:278–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kinoshita N, Nimura Y, Okamoto M, Miyatake K, Nagata S, Sakakibara H. Mitral regurgitation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive study by two dimensional Doppler echocardiography. Br Heart J. 1983;49:574–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maron BJ, Gardin JM, Flack JM, Gidding SS, Kurosaki TT, Bild DE. Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults. Echocardiographic analysis of 4111 subjects in the CARDIA study. Coronary artery risk development in (young) adults. Circulation. 1995;92:785–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klues HG, Schiffers A, Maron BJ. Phenotypic spectrum and patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: morphologic observations and significance as assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography in 600 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:1699–1708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spirito P, Bellone P, Harris KM, Bernabo P, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ. Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1778–1785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elliott PM, Gimeno Blanes JR, Mahon NG, Poloniecki JD, McKenna WJ. Relation between severity of left-ventricular hypertrophy and prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Lancet. 2001;357:420–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Spataro A, Proschan MA, Spirito P. The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sharma S, Maron BJ, Whyte G, Firoozi S, Elliott PM, McKenna WJ. Physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite junior athletes: relevance to differential diagnosis of athlete’s heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:1431–1436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McMahon CJ, Nagueh SF, Pignatelli RH, Denfield SW, Dreyer WJ, Price JF, Clunie S, Bezold LI, Hays AL, Towbin JA, Eidem BW. Characterization of left ventricular diastolic function by tissue Doppler imaging and clinical status in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2004;109:1756–1762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cardim N, Oliveira AG, Longo S, Ferreira T, Pereira A, Reis RP, Correia JM. Doppler tissue imaging: regional myocardial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in athlete’s heart. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003;16:223–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Matsumura Y, Elliott PM, Virdee MS, Sorajja P, Doi Y, McKenna WJ. Left ventricular diastolic function assessed using Doppler tissue imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation to symptoms and exercise capacity. Heart. 2002;87:247–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zoncu S, Pelliccia A, Mercuro G. Assessment of regional systolic and diastolic wall motion velocities in highly trained athletes by pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002;15:900–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caso P, Galderisi M, Cicala S, Cioppa C, D’Andrea A, Lagioia G, Liccardo B, Martiniello AR, Mininni N. Association between myocardial right ventricular relaxation time and pulmonary arterial pressure in chronic obstructive lung disease: analysis by pulsed Doppler tissue imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001;14:970–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Serri K, Reant P, Lafitte M, Berhouet M, Le Bouffos V, Roudaut R, Lafitte S. Global and regional myocardial function quantification by two-dimensional strain: application in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:1175–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Neilan TG, Ton-Nu TT, Jassal DS, Popovic ZB, Douglas PS, Halpern EF, Marshall JE, Thomas JD, Picard MH, Yoerger DM, Wood MJ. Myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise in highly trained athletes. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2006;19:1280–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saghir M, Areces M, Makan M. Strain rate imaging differentiates hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy from physiologic cardiac hypertrophy (athlete’s heart). J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2007;20:151–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rickers C, Wilke NM, Jerosch-Herold M, Casey SA, Panse P, Panse N, Weil J, Zenovich AG, Maron BJ. Utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2005;112:855–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maron BJ, Epstein SE, Roberts WC. Causes of sudden death in competitive athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986;7:204–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Corrado D, Thiene G, Nava A, Rossi L, Pennelli N. Sudden death in young competitive athletes: clinicopathologic correlations in 22 cases. Am J Med. 1990;89:588–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Frescura C, Basso C, Thiene G, Corrado D, Pennelli T, Angelini A, Daliento L. Anomalous origin of coronary arteries and risk of sudden death: a study based on an autopsy population of congenital heart disease. Hum Pathol. 1998;29:689–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Basso C, Maron BJ, Corrado D, Thiene G. Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from the wrong aortic sinus leading to sudden death in young competitive athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:1493–1501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cheitlin MD, De Castro CM, McAllister HA. Sudden death as a complication of anomalous left coronary origin from the anterior sinus of valsalva, a not-so-minor congenital anomaly. Circulation. 1974;50:780–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Benson PA. Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery with sudden death: case report and review. Am Heart J. 1970;79:254–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Taylor AJ, Rogan KM, Virmani R. Sudden cardiac death associated with isolated congenital coronary artery anomalies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;20:640–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roberts WC, Shirani J. The four subtypes of anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right aortic sinus (or from the right coronary artery). Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:119–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pelliccia A, Spataro A, Maron BJ. Prospective echocardiographic screening for coronary artery anomalies in 1,360 elite competitive athletes. Am J Cardiol. 1993;72:978–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zeppilli P, dello Russo A, Santini C, Palmieri V, Natale L, Giordano A, Frustaci A. In vivo detection of coronary artery anomalies in asymptomatic athletes by echocardiographic screening. Chest. 1998;114:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fernandes F, Alam M, Smith S, Khaja F. The role of transesophageal echocardiography in identifying anomalous coronary arteries. Circulation. 1993;88:2532–2540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dawn B, Talley JD, Prince CR, Hoque A, Morris GT, Xenopoulos NP, Stoddard MF. Two-dimensional and Doppler transesophageal echocardiographic delineation and flow characterization of anomalous coronary arteries in adults. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003;16:1274–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Datta J, White CS, Gilkeson RC, Meyer CA, Kansal S, Jani ML, Arildsen RC, Read K. Anomalous coronary arteries in adults: depiction at multi-detector row CT angiography. Radiology. 2005;235:812–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    van Ooijen PM, Dorgelo J, Zijlstra F, Oudkerk M. Detection, visualization and evaluation of anomalous coronary anatomy on 16-slice multidetector-row CT. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:2163–2171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schmid M, Achenbach S, Ludwig J, Baum U, Anders K, Pohle K, Daniel WG, Ropers D. Visualization of coronary artery anomalies by contrast-enhanced multi-detector row spiral computed tomography. Int J Cardiol. 2006;111:430–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Memisoglu E, Ropers D, Hobikoglu G, Tepe MS, Labovitz AJ. Usefulness of electron beam computed tomography for diagnosis of an anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:1452–1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ropers D, Moshage W, Daniel WG, Jessl J, Gottwik M, Achenbach S. Visualization of coronary artery anomalies and their anatomic course by contrast-enhanced electron beam tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87:193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McConnell MV, Ganz P, Selwyn AP, Li W, Edelman RR, Manning WJ. Identification of anomalous coronary arteries and their anatomic course by magnetic resonance coronary angiography. Circulation. 1995;92:3158–3162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Casolo G, Del Meglio J, Rega L, Manta R, Margheri M, Villari N, Gensini G. Detection and assessment of coronary artery anomalies by three-dimensional magnetic resonance coronary angiography. Int J Cardiol. 2005;103:317–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bunce NH, Lorenz CH, Keegan J, Lesser J, Reyes EM, Firmin DN, Pennell DJ. Coronary artery anomalies: assessment with free-breathing three-dimensional coronary MR angiography. Radiology. 2003;227:201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Furlanello F, Bertoldi A, Dallago M, Furlanello C, Fernando F, Inama G, Pappone C, Chierchia S. Cardiac arrest and sudden death in competitive athletes with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998;21:331–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thiene G, Nava A, Corrado D, Rossi L, Pennelli N. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy and sudden death in young people. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:129–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Basso C, Thiene G, Corrado D, Angelini A, Nava A, Valente M. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Dysplasia, dystrophy, or myocarditis? Circulation. 1996;94:983–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Corrado D, Fontaine G, Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Nava A, Thiene G, Wichter T. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: need for an international registry. European Society of Cardiology and the Scientific Council on Cardiomyopathies of the World Heart Federation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000;11:827–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Metzger JT, de Chillou C, Cheriex E, Rodriguez LM, Smeets JL, Wellens HJ. Value of the 12-lead electrocardiogram in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and absence of correlation with echocardiographic findings. Am J Cardiol. 1993;72:964–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pinamonti B, Sinagra G, Camerini F. Clinical relevance of right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Heart. 2000;83:9–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McKenna WJ, Thiene G, Nava A, Fontaliran F, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Fontaine G, Camerini F. Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Task Force of the Working Group Myocardial and Pericardial Disease of the European Society of Cardiology and of the Scientific Council on Cardiomyopathies of the International Society and Federation of Cardiology. Br Heart J. 1994;71:215–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yoerger DM, Marcus F, Sherrill D, Calkins H, Towbin JA, Zareba W, Picard MH. Echocardiographic findings in patients meeting task force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: new insights from the multidisciplinary study of right ventricular dysplasia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:860–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carlson MD, White RD, Trohman RG, Adler LP, Biblo LA, Merkatz KA, Waldo AL. Right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia: detection of previously unrecognized anatomic abnormalities using cine magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;24:720 –727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Protonotarios NI, Tsatsopoulou AA, Gatzoulis KA. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy caused by a deletion in plakoglobin (Naxos disease). Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2002;6:72–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Prakasa KR, Wang J, Tandri H, Dalal D, Bomma C, Chojnowski R, James C, Tichnell C, Russell S, Judge D, Corretti M, Bluemke D, Calkins H, Abraham TP. Utility of tissue Doppler and strain echocardiography in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:507–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kjaergaard J, Hastrup Svendsen J, Sogaard P, Chen X, Bay Nielsen H, Køber L, Kjaer A, Hassager C. Advanced quantitative echocardiography in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2007;20:27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Prakasa KR, Dalal D, Wang J, Bomma C, Tandri H, Dong J, James C, Tichnell C, Russell SD, Spevak P, Corretti M, Bluemke DA, Calkins H, Abraham TP. Feasibility and variability of three dimensional echocardiography in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:703–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Peters S, Brattström A, Götting B, Trümmel M. Value of intracardiac ultrasound in the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia–cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiol. 2002;83:111–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    White RD, Trohman RG, Flamm SD, VanDyke CW, Optican RJ, Sterba R, Obuchowski NA, Carlson MD, Tchou PJ. Right ventricular arrhythmia in the absence of arrhythmogenic dysplasia: MR imaging of myocardial abnormalities. Radiology. 1998;207:743–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Marcus FI, Fontaine GH, Guiraudon G, Frank R, Laurenceau JL, Malergue C, Grosgogeat Y. Right ventricular dysplasia: a report of 24 adult cases. Circulation. 1982;65:384–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mehta D, Odawara H, Ward DE, McKenna WJ, Davies MJ, Camm AJ. Echocardiographic and histologic evaluation of the right ventricle in ventricular tachycardias of left bundle branch block morphology without overt cardiac abnormality. Am J Cardiol. 1989;63:939–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Auffermann W, Wichter T, Breithardt G, Joachimsen K, Peters PE. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease: MR imaging vs angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;161:549–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    van der Wall EE, Kayser HW, Bootsma MM, de Roos A, Schalij MJ. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: MRI findings. Herz. 2000;25:356–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Corrado D, Basso C, Thiene G. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Heart. 2000;83:588–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ricci C, Longo R, Pagnan L, Dalla Palma L, Pinamonti B, Camerini F, Bussani R, Silvestri F. Magnetic resonance imaging in right ventricular dysplasia. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:1589–1595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Midiri M, Finazzo M, Brancato M, Hoffmann E, Indovina G, Maria MD, Lagalla R. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: MR features. Eur Radiol. 1997;7:307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tandri H, Calkins H, Nasir K, Bomma C, Castillo E, Rutberg J, Tichnell C, Lima JA, Bluemke DA. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients meeting task force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003;14:476–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tandri H, Saranathan M, Rodriguez ER, Martinez C, Bomma C, Nasir K, Rosen B, Lima JA, Calkins H, Bluemke DA. Noninvasive detection of myocardial fibrosis in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy using delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:98–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blake LM, Scheinman MM, Higgins CB. MR features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;162:809–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Markowitz SM, Litvak BL, Ramirez de Arellano EA, Markisz JA, Stein KM, Lerman BB. Adenosine-sensitive ventricular tachycardia: right ventricular abnormalities delineated by magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 1997;96:1192–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tandri H, Macedo R, Calkins H, Marcus F, Cannom D, Scheinman M, Daubert J, Estes Iii M, Wilber D, Talajic M, Duff H, Krahn A, Sweeney M, Garan H, Bluemke DA. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: insights from the North American arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD/C) study. American Heart Journal. 2008;155:147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Molinari G, Sardanelli F, Gaita F, Ottonello C, Richiardi E, Parodi RC, Masperone MA, Caponnetto S. Right ventricular dysplasia as a generalized cardiomyopathy? Findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Heart J. 1995;16:1619–1624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dumousset E, Alfidja A, Lamaison D, Ponsonnaille J, Ravel A, Garcier JM, Boyer L. MRI and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). Retrospective evaluation of 50 patients. J Radiol. 2004;85:313–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Burke AP, Farb A, Tashko G, Virmani R. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and fatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium: are they different diseases? Circulation. 1998;97:1571–1580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fontaliran F, Fontaine G, Fillette F, Aouate P, Chomette G, Grosgogeat Y. Nosologic frontiers of arrhythmogenic dysplasia. Quantitative variations of normal adipose tissue of the right heart ventricle. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1991;84:33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tandri H, Castillo E, Ferrari VA, Nasir K, Dalal D, Bomma C, Calkins H, Bluemke DA. Magnetic resonance imaging of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: sensitivity, specificity, and observer variability of fat detection versus functional analysis of the right ventricle. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:2277–2284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Appleton CP, Hatle LK, Popp RL. Relation of transmitral flow velocity patterns to left ventricular diastolic function: new insights from a combined hemodynamic and Doppler echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;12:426–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kayser HW, Schalij MJ, van der Wall EE, Stoel BC, de Roos A. Biventricular function in patients with nonischemic right ventricle tachyarrhythmias assessed with MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169:995–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dery R, Lipton MJ, Garrett JS, Abbott J, Higgins CB, Schienman MM. Cine-computed tomography of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1986;10:120–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bomma C, Dalal D, Tandri H, Prakasa K, Nasir K, Roguin A, Piccini J, Dong J, Mahadevappa M, Tichnell C, James C, Lima JAC, Fishman E, Calkins H, Bluemke DA. Evolving role of multidetector computed tomography in evaluation of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:99–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kantarci M, Bayraktutan U, Sevimli S, Bayram E, Durur I. Multidetector computed tomography findings of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: a case report. Heart Surg Forum. 2008;11:E56–E58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wu Y-W, Tadamura E, Kanao S, Yamamuro M, Nishiyama K, Kimura T, Kita T, Togashi K. Structural and functional assessment of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy by multi-slice computed tomography: comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Int J Cardiol. 2007;115:e118–e121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aaron L. Baggish
    • 1
  • Kibar Yared
  • Malissa J. Wood
  • Adolph M. Hutter
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyHarvard UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations