Responses of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Starvation
Lactic acid bacteria are exposed to a series of stresses during environmental transit and food fermentation processes. Stresses unique to fermented foods are high acid, low temperature, and limited to no free sugar. In fermented foods, lactobacilli and lactococci recently have been recognized to become nonculturable (NC) under these conditions. It has been shown that lactococci become NC under carbohydrate starvation, which leads to additional metabolic changes during 180 days of incubation. Important end products include branched-chain fatty acids from the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. In addition, sulfur metabolism changes. It has yet to be demonstrated that NC lactococci can be resuscitated with known compounds or peptides. The NC state of lactococci leads to new metabolic end products not produced during log-phase growth.
KeywordsLactic Acid Bacterium Amino Acid Metabolism Carbon Starvation Amino Acid Catabolism Arginine Deiminase
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