First- and Second-Order Sections

  • Lars Wanhammar

Many active filter structures are based on first- and second-order sections. In this chapter, we will first discuss different types of sections with respect to their transfer functions. Next, we will classify, analyze, and compare different realizations that are based on resistors, capacitors, and with one or several operational amplifiers, transconductors, or current conveyors [58, 130]. These circuits can, of course, be implemented with discrete components, but this is of less interest because a large number of active elements are often needed and the cost and the power consumption becomes high. Integrated active elements are considerably cheaper and consume less power.


Transfer Function Operational Amplifier Passive Element Pole Radius Suitable Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. Electrical Engineering Division of Electronics SystemsLinköping UniversitySweden

Personalised recommendations