Filters with Distributed Elements
At microwave frequencies, the lumped elements discussed in Chapter 3 tend to become small and therefore difficult to manufacture. In addition, the lumped inductors and capacitors depart from their ideal characteristics due to radiation, loss, and propagation effects. In this chapter, we will discuss the synthesis of analog filter structures that are based on distributed circuit elements. There exist a large number of components that must be modeled by distributed circuit elements. To discuss all filter structures based on commonly used components and associated design techniques is beyond the scope of this book. The interested reader may find a wealth of material in [7, 50, 53, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99].