Swedes and Turnips

  • Stuart Gowers
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 7)


Swedes (Brassica napus var. napobrassica (L.) Rchb. syn. B. napus ssp. rapifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.) and turnips (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa L. syn. Brassica campestris ssp. rapifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.) are root crops which can be used for human or animal consumption. For example, in Scotland swede crops can be grazed in situ or lifted as required for housed stock throughout autumn and winter. Swedes are also the third most widely grown vegetable in Scotland, after vining peas and carrots, with production for supermarkets primarily handled by four large growers and packers.


Powdery Mildew Clubroot Resistance Crude Protein Level Scottish Crop Research Institute Total Glucosinolate Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I wish to thank the editor, Dr. J.E. Bradshaw, for his comments and contributions to this chapter. I would also like to thank all those who have assisted me in my efforts over the last 40 years.


  1. Ahokas H (2004) On the evolution, spread and names of rutabaga. In: MTT-agrifood research Finland 2004. Kave, Helsinki, Finland, p. 32.Google Scholar
  2. Ahuja I, Bhaskar PB, Banga SK, Banga SS (2003) Synthesis and cytogenetic characterization of intergeneric hybrids of Diplotaxis siifolia with Brassica rapa and B. juncea. Plant Breed 122: 447–449.Google Scholar
  3. Anon (2008) The Economic Report on Scottish Agriculture: 2008 edn.
  4. Bing DJ, Downey RK, Rakow GFW (1996) Hybridizations among Brassica napus, B. rapa and B. juncea and their two weedy relatives B. nigra and Sinapis arvensis under open pollination conditions in the field. Plant Breed 115: 470–473.Google Scholar
  5. Birch ANE (1988) Field and glasshouse studies on components of resistance to root fly attack in swedes. Ann Appl Biol 113: 89–100.Google Scholar
  6. Birch ANE (1989) A field cage method for assessing resistance to turnip root fly in brassicas. Ann Appl Biol 115: 321–325.Google Scholar
  7. Blaxter KL (1971) Concluding remarks – the future of brassica fodder crops. In: Greenhalgh JFD, Hamilton M (eds.) The future of brassica fodder crops. Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, pp. 65–66.Google Scholar
  8. Boswell VR (1949) Our vegetable travellers. Natl Geogr Mag 96: 45–217.Google Scholar
  9. Bradshaw JE (1989) Inter-plot competition in yield trials of swedes (Brassica-napus ssp. rapifera L.). Euphytica 42: 135–140.Google Scholar
  10. Bradshaw JE, Gemmell DJ, Gowers S, Wilson RN (2002) Turnip (Brassica rapa L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.) population improvement and cultivar production. Plant Breed 121: 301–306.Google Scholar
  11. Bradshaw JE, Gemmell DJ, Williamson CJ (1989) Inheritance of adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew in swedes. Ann Appl Biol 114: 359–366.Google Scholar
  12. Bradshaw JE, Gemmell DJ, Wilson RN (1997) Transfer of resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) to swedes (Brassica napus L. var. napobrassica Peterm.) from B. rapa. Ann Appl Biol 130: 337–348.Google Scholar
  13. Bradshaw JE, Griffiths DW (1990) Sugar content of swedes for stockfeeding. J Sci Food Agric 50: 167–172.Google Scholar
  14. Bradshaw JE, Heaney RK, Smith WHM, Gowers S, Gemmell DJ, Fenwick GR (1984) The glucosinolate content of some fodder brassicas. J Sci Food Agric 35: 977–981.Google Scholar
  15. Bradshaw JE, Titley M, Wilson RN (2009) Single seed descent as a breeding method for swedes (Brassica napus L. var. napobrassica Peterm.). Euphytica 169: 387–401.Google Scholar
  16. Bradshaw JE, Williamson CJ (1991) Selection for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) in marrowstem kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.). Ann Appl Biol 119: 501–511.Google Scholar
  17. Bradshaw JE, Wilson RN (1993) Inbred line versus F1 hybrid breeding in swedes (Brassica napus L. var. napobrassica Peterm). Ann Appl Biol 123: 657–665.Google Scholar
  18. Brain PJ, Whittington WJ (1979) Genetic-analysis of resistance to swede mildew. Ann Appl Biol 95: 137–141.Google Scholar
  19. Brueckner B, Schonhof I, Schroedter R (2007) An underutilized traditional speciality: Teltow Turnips. Acta Hort 752: 203–207.Google Scholar
  20. Bukin VN, Izmailova KA, Bogochunaz AN (1934) The effect of cooking on the vitamin C content of vegetables. Trudy Po Prikladnoi Botanike Genetike i. Selektsii Suppl 67Google Scholar
  21. Calder RA (1937) Interpollination of Brassicas. N Z J Agric 55: 299–308.Google Scholar
  22. Carlson DG, Daxenbichler ME, Vanetten CH, Tookey HL (1981) Glucosinolates in crucifer vegetables – turnips and rutabagas. J Agric Food Chem 29: 1235–1239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiang MS (1974) Cabbage pollen germination and longevity. Euphytica 23: 579–584.Google Scholar
  24. Choudhary BR, Joshi P (2001) Crossability of Brassica tournefortii and B. rapa, and morphology and cytology of their F1 hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 102: 1123–1128.Google Scholar
  25. Christey MC (2004) Brassica protoplast culture and somatic hybridization. In: Pua EC, Douglas CJ (eds.) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry: 54 Brassica. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 119–148.Google Scholar
  26. Christey MC, Braun R (2004) Production of transgenic vegetable brassicas. In: Pua EC, Douglas CJ (eds.) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry: 54 Brassica. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 169–194.Google Scholar
  27. Chrungu B, Verma N, Mohanty A, Pradhan A, Shivanna KR (1999) Production and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Brassica maurorum and crop brassicas. Theor Appl Genet 98: 608–613.Google Scholar
  28. Conner AJ, Abernethy DJ, Dastgheib F, Field RJ (1994) Brassica.napus mutants with increased chlorsulfuron resistance. Proc 47th N Z Plant Prot Conf 47: 173–177.Google Scholar
  29. Crute IR, Gray AR, Crisp P, Buczacki ST (1980) Variation in Plasmodiophora brassicae and resistance to clubroot disease in Brassicas and allied crops. Plant Breed Abstr 50: 91–104.Google Scholar
  30. Cunningham A (1981) Pollen viability after low temperature storage in Brassica campestris, B. oleracea and B. napus. Crucif Newsl 6: 18–19.Google Scholar
  31. Davey VM (1931) Colour inheritance in swedes and turnips and its bearing on the identification of commercial stocks. Scott Agric 14: 362–367.Google Scholar
  32. Davey VM (1932) The methods of sampling swede bulb by cores. J Agric Sci Camb 22: 767–782.Google Scholar
  33. Davey VM (1941) Root crops. Rep Scott Plant Breed Stn 1941: 24–26.Google Scholar
  34. Davey VM (1954) Swede trials at Corstorphine (1924–1954). Rep Scott Plant Breed Stn 1954: 42–51.Google Scholar
  35. Davey VM (1959) Cultivated Brassiceae: information available to the Breeder. Rep Scott Plant Breed Stn 1959: 23–62.Google Scholar
  36. Davey VM, Lang JMS (1938) Root crops (swedes and kale). Rep Scott Plant Breed Stn 1938: 28–31.Google Scholar
  37. Davik J (1992) Sugar and glucosinolate content in swede Brassica napus ssp. rapifera. Norsk Landbruksforsking 6: 215–221.Google Scholar
  38. Davik J (1994) Lack of interplot competition in swedes (Brassica-napus ssp rapifera L.). Euphytica 74: 129–132.Google Scholar
  39. Davik J (1997) Parameter estimates from generation means in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera L.). Euphytica 98: 53–58.Google Scholar
  40. De Roo R (1962) Experiences ayant trait aux navets tetraploides (Brassica rapa L.). Revue de l’Agriculture, Bruxelles 15: 897–899.Google Scholar
  41. Denton OA, Whittington WJ (1976) Genetic variation amongst swede varieties and their hybrids and their response to soil fertility. J Agric Sci Camb 87: 443–446.Google Scholar
  42. Deol JS, Shivanna KR, Prakash S, Banga SS (2003) Enarthrocarpus lyratus-based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restorer system in Brassica rapa. Plant Breed 122: 438–440.Google Scholar
  43. Dewey PJS, Wainman FW (1984) The metabolizable energy content of some swedes, kales and cabbages. In: Macfarlane Smith WH, Hodgkin T (eds.) Proceedings of Better Brassica Conference ’84. Scottish Crop Research Institute, Dundee, pp. 62–66.Google Scholar
  44. Dixon GR (1976) Methods used in Western Europe and the USA for testing Brassica seedling resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiphora brassicae). Plant Pathol 25: 129–134.Google Scholar
  45. Dyson PW (1980) A comparison of two sampling methods for the estimation of dry matter and mineral content of roots. J Sci Food Agric 31: 585–592.Google Scholar
  46. England FJW (1977) A comparison of hand and machine harvesting of swede trials. Crucif Newsl 2: 20–21.Google Scholar
  47. Faulkner GJ (1971) The behaviour of honey-bees (Apis mellifera) on flowering Brussels sprout inbreds in the production of F1 hybrid seed. Hortic Res 11: 60–62.Google Scholar
  48. Ferrari TE, Lee SS, Wallace DH (1981) Biochemistry and physiology of recognition in pollen stigma interactions. Phytopathology 71: 753–755.Google Scholar
  49. Frandsen KJ (1947) The experimental formation of Brassica napus L. var. oleifera DC. and Brassica carinata Braun. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 12: 1–16.Google Scholar
  50. Frandsen KJ (1958) Breeding of swede (Brassica napus var. rapifera L.). Handb PflZucht 3: 311–326.Google Scholar
  51. Free JB (1970) Insect pollination of crops. Academic Press, London and New York, NY.Google Scholar
  52. Fu TD, Si P, Yang XN, Yang GS (1992) Overcoming self-incompatibility of Brassica napus by salt (NaCl) spray. Plant Breed 109: 255–258.Google Scholar
  53. Gemmell DJ, Bradshaw JE, Hodgkin T, Gowers S (1989) Self-incompatibility in Brassica.napus – seed set on crossing 19 self-incompatible lines. Euphytica 42: 71–77.Google Scholar
  54. Gemmell DJ, Griffiths DW, Bradshaw JE (1990) Effect of cultivar and harvest date on dry-matter content, hardness and sugar content of swedes for stockfeeding. J Sci Food Agric 53: 333–342.Google Scholar
  55. Gosden AF (1979) An automated procedure for the estimation of S-methylcysteine-sulphoxide in kale. J Sci Food Agric 30: 892–898.Google Scholar
  56. Gowers S (1974a) Methods of exploitation of known intervarietal heterosis. Rep Scott Plant Breed Stn 1974: 12–13.Google Scholar
  57. Gowers S (1974b) Production of F1 hybrid swedes (Brassica.napus ssp. rapifera) by utilization of self-incompatability. Euphytica 23: 205–208.Google Scholar
  58. Gowers S (1975) Methods of producing F1 hybrid swedes (Brassica.napus ssp. rapifera). Euphytica 24: 537–541.Google Scholar
  59. Gowers S (1976) Breeding methods and variety testing in swedes. In: Dennis B (ed.) Breeding methods and variety testing in forage plants. Eucarpia, Taastrup, Roskilde, pp. 69–73.Google Scholar
  60. Gowers S (1977) Comparison of diploid and tetraploid turnips (Brassica campestris ssp. rapifera). Euphytica 26: 203–206.Google Scholar
  61. Gowers S (1979) Swede breeding: inbreeding within cultivars. Rep Scott Plant Breed Stn 1979: 38–40.Google Scholar
  62. Gowers S (1981a) Hardness determination by penetrometer. Scott Crop Res Inst Ann Rep 1981: 157–158.Google Scholar
  63. Gowers S (1981b) Self-pollination in swedes (Brassica.napus ssp. rapifera) and its implications for cultivar production. Euphytica 30: 813–817.Google Scholar
  64. Gowers S (1982) The transfer of characters from Brassica campestris L. to Brassica napus L.: production of clubroot resistant oil-seed rape (B. napus ssp. oleifera). Euphytica 31: 971–976.Google Scholar
  65. Gowers S (1984) Multiplication tunnels for Brassica breeding programmes. Crucif Newsl 9: 44–45.Google Scholar
  66. Gowers S (1986) Removal of the self-incompatibility barrier in Brassica.napus. Crucif Newsl 11: 79–80.Google Scholar
  67. Gowers S (1988) Prediction of yield on conversion of a crop with mixed selfing and cross pollination to complete outcrossing. In: Proceedings of the 9th Australian Plant Breeding Conference. University of Sydney, Wagga, pp. 85–86.Google Scholar
  68. Gowers S (1989) Self-incompatibility interactions in Brassica.napus. Euphytica 42: 99–103.Google Scholar
  69. Gowers S (1994) A CO2/water vapour mixture for use with self-incompatible brassicas. Crucif Newsl 16: 86.Google Scholar
  70. Gowers S (2000) A comparison of methods for hybrid seed production using self-incompatibility in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. napobrassica). Euphytica 113: 207–210.Google Scholar
  71. Gowers S, Armstrong SD (1986) Annual swede breeding cycle in New Zealand. Crucif Newsl 11: 58–59.Google Scholar
  72. Gowers S, Armstrong SD (1998) Breeding and selection for resistance to dry rot (Leptosphaeria maculans) in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera). Acta Hortic 459: 351–356.Google Scholar
  73. Gowers S, Barclay D (1978) Estimation and selection of dry matter content in swedes. Crucif Newsl 3: 14.Google Scholar
  74. Gowers S, Butler R, Armstrong SD (2006) Yield comparisons of old and new cultivars of swedes (Brassica napus ssp. napobrassica) in Southland, New Zealand. N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 34: 109–114.Google Scholar
  75. Gowers S, Christey MC (1999) Intercrossing Brassica napus and B. oleracea to introgress characters from kale to rape. In: Wratten N, Salisbury PA (eds.) Proceeding of the 10th International Oilseed Congress. Canberra, Australia. Google Scholar
  76. Gowers S, Gemmell DJ (1988a) Inbreeding and selection in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera). Euphytica 38: 277–280.Google Scholar
  77. Gowers S, Gemmell DJ (1988b) Selection for high dry-matter content in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera). Euphytica 39: 133–136.Google Scholar
  78. Gowers S, Gemmell DJ (1988c) Variation in flowering response to pre-vernalization growth in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera). Euphytica 37: 275–278.Google Scholar
  79. Gowers S, Munro IK, Gemmell DJ (1984) Turnip root-fly resistance in swedes. Crucif Newsl 9: 22–23.Google Scholar
  80. Gowers S, Shaw ML (1999) Selection for low S-methylcysteine sulphoxide content in kale. Crucif Newsl 21: 89–90.Google Scholar
  81. Grandclément C, Thomas G (1996) Detection and analysis of QTLs based on rapd markers for polygenic resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron in Brassica oleracea L. Theor Appl Genet 93: 86–90.Google Scholar
  82. Grant I, Harney PM, Christie BR (1982) Inheritance of yield and other quantitative characters in Brassica napus var. napobrassica. Can J Gen Cytol 24: 459–465.Google Scholar
  83. Griffiths DW, Bradshaw JE, Taylor J, Gemmell DJ (1991) Effect of cultivar and harvest date on the glucosinolate and S-methylcysteine sulphoxide content of swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera). J Sci Food Agric 56: 539–549.Google Scholar
  84. Gustafsson M, Falt AS (1986) Genetic studies on resistance to clubroot in Brassica napus. Ann Appl Biol 108: 409–415.Google Scholar
  85. Gustafsson M, Gummeson PO (1988) Genes for resistance to clubroot in varieties of Brassica napus. Vortrage fur Pflanzenzuchtung 13: 157–168.Google Scholar
  86. Hansen M, Bratberg E (2003) New breeding methods in swede – pure line varieties selected from microspore-derived lines. Acta Hort 625: 419–423.Google Scholar
  87. Herbst ST (2001) The new food lover’s companion. Barron’s Educational Series Inc, New York, NY, p. 792.Google Scholar
  88. Herrmann K (1998) Constituents of swedes and garden turnips. Industrielle Obst- und Gemueseverwertung 83: 88–92.Google Scholar
  89. Hirai M, Harada T, Kubo N, Tsukada M, Suwabe K, Matsumoto S (2004) A novel locus for clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa and its linkage markers. Theor Appl Genet 108: 639–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hirai M, Matsumoto S (2007) Brassica rapa. In: Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants; Vegetables. Springer-Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, pp. 185–190.Google Scholar
  91. Hoen K (1968) Heritiabilities and genetic correlations in turnips (Brassica campestris L. var. rapa). Euphytica 17: 352–356.Google Scholar
  92. Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1991) Vegetables, herbs and spices. In: McCance RA, Widdowson EM (eds.) The composition of foods, 4th edn. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 163pp.Google Scholar
  93. Honda F, Niiuchi K (1966) On the breeding of earlier varieties of rutabaga by interspecific hybridization. Bull Hortic Res Stn (Min Agric For) Ser D Kurume 4: 104.Google Scholar
  94. Hoshi T (1975) Genetic study on formation of anthocyanins and flavonols in turnip varieties – genetic studies on anthocyanins in brassicaceae. Bot Mag Tokyo 88: 249–254.Google Scholar
  95. Hu B, Chen F, Li Q (1997) Sterility and variation resulting from the transfer of polima cytoplasmic male sterility from Brassica napus into Brassica chinensis. J Agric Sci 128: 299–301.Google Scholar
  96. Hughes SL, Green SK, Lydiate DJ, Walsh JA (2002) Resistance to turnip mosaic virus in Brassica rapa and B. napus and the analysis of genetic inheritance in selected lines. Plant Pathol 51: 567–573.Google Scholar
  97. Igarashi K, Mikami T, Takahashi Y, Sato H (2008) Comparison of the preventive activity of isorhamnetin glycosides from atsumi-kabu (red turnip, Brassica campestris L.) leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72: 856–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Itokawa Y, Inoue K, Sasagawa S, Fujiwara M (1973) Effect of S-methylcysteine sulfoxide, S-allycysteine sulfoxide and related sulfur containing amino acids on lipid metabolism of experimental hypercholesterolemic rats. J Nutr 103: 88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Jacobs JL, Ward GN, Kearney G (2004) Effects of irrigation strategies and nitrogen fertiliser on turnip dry matter yield, water use efficiency, nutritive characteristics and mineral content in western Victoria. Austr J Exp Agric 44: 13–26.Google Scholar
  100. Jacobs JL, Ward GN, McDowell AM, Kearney GA (2001) A survey on the effect of establishment techniques, crop management, moisture availability and soil type on turnip dry matter yields and nutritive characteristics in western Victoria. Austr J Exp Agric 41: 743–751.Google Scholar
  101. Jenkinson JG, Glynne-Jones GD (1953) Observations on the pollination of oil rape and broccoli. Bee World 34: 173–177.Google Scholar
  102. Jenkyn JF, Rawlinson CJ (1977) Effect of fungicides and insecticides on mildew, viruses and root yield of swedes. Plant Pathol 26: 166–174.Google Scholar
  103. Jenner CE, Wang XW, Tomimura K, Ohshima K, Ponz F, Walsh JA (2003) The dual role of the potyvirus P3 protein of turnip mosaic virus as a symptom and avirulence determinant in brassicas. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16: 777–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Johnston TD (1968) Clubroot in Brassica: standard inoculation technique and the specification of races. Plant Pathol 17: 184–187.Google Scholar
  105. Jones HA, Emsweller SL (1934) The use of flies as onion pollinators. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 31: 160–164.Google Scholar
  106. Josefsson A (ed.) (1948) Breeding of root crops. In: Svalöf 1886–1946. Carl Bloms Boktryckeri A-B, Lund, pp. 148–165.Google Scholar
  107. Jung GA, Byers RA, Panciera MT, Shaffer JA (1986) Forage dry-matter accumulation and quality of turnip, swede, rape, chinese-cabbage hybrids and kale in the eastern USA. Agron J 78: 245–253.Google Scholar
  108. Kaneko Y, Yano H, Bang SW, Matsuzawa Y (2001) Production and characterization of Raphanus sativus-Brassica rapa monosomic chromosome addition lines. Plant Breed 120: 163–168.Google Scholar
  109. Kay M (1971) Feeding value of brassica fodder crops. In: Greenhalgh JFD, Hamilton M (eds.) The future of brassica fodder crops. Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, pp. 49–55.Google Scholar
  110. Kevan PG, Eisikowitch D (1990) The effects of insect pollination on canola (Brassica napus L. Cv. O.AS.C Triton) seed germination. Euphytica 45: 39–41.Google Scholar
  111. Kim JS, Chung TY, King GJ, Jin M, Yang TJ, Jin YM, Kim HI, Park BS (2006) A sequence-tagged linkage map of Brassica rapa. Genetics 174: 29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kimber DS (1977) Variety testing for national and recommended lists in England and Wales. J Natl Inst Agric Bot 14: 306–311.Google Scholar
  113. Koresheva RN (1974) A comparative anatomical study of the swede and turnip leaf. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii 52: 237–243.Google Scholar
  114. Kuckuck H, Kobabe G (1962) Kűchenzwiebel, Allium cepa L. In: Kappert H, Rudorf W (eds.) Handbuch der Pflanzenzuchtung VI. Paul Parey, Berlin, pp. 270–312.Google Scholar
  115. Lammerink J (1970) Inter-specific transfer of clubroot resistance from Brasssica campestris L. to B. napus L. N Z J Agric Res 13: 105–110.Google Scholar
  116. Lammerink J, Hart RW (1985) ‘Tina’, a new swede cultivar with resistance to dry rot and clubroot. N Z J Agric Res 13: 417–420.Google Scholar
  117. Lang RW, Holmes JC (1965) The effect of plant population and distribution on the yield and quality of swedes. J Agric Sci Camb 65: 91–99.Google Scholar
  118. Langer RHM, Hill GD (1991) Agricultural plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  119. Lelivelt CLC, Lange W, Dolstra O (1993) Intergeneric crosses for the transfer of resistance to the beet cyst nematode from Raphanus sativus to Brassica napus. Euphytica 68: 111–120.Google Scholar
  120. Li Z, Heneen WK (1999) Production and cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between the three cultivated Brassica diploids and Orychophragmus violaceus. Theor Appl Genet 99: 694–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Li X, Mao H, Bai Y (1995) Transgenic plants of rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica) tolerant to pest insects. Plant Cell Rep 15: 97–101.Google Scholar
  122. Liu XP, Lu C, Liu YK, Wei SQ, Xu JB, Liu ZR, Zhang HJ, Li JL, Ke GL, Yao WY, Cai YS, Wu FY, Cao SC, Li YH, Xie SD, Lin BX, Zhang CL (1996) Occurrence and strain differentiation of turnip mosaic potyvirus and sources of resistance in chinese cabbage in China. Acta Hortic 407: 431–440.Google Scholar
  123. Livingstone M, Jones AS, Mennie I (1977) Swedes (Brassica napus) for growing pigs: chemical composition and use as a replacement for barley in the diet. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2: 31–40.Google Scholar
  124. Lu G, Cao JS, Yu XL, Xiang X, Chen H (2008) Mapping QTLs for root morphological traits in Brassica rapa L. based on AFLP and RAPD markers. J Appl Genet 49: 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. MacFarlane Smith WH, Newbould DC (1988) The effect of covering material and nitrogen application on seed yield and quality of Brassica multiplications in seed production tunnels. Seed Sci Technol 16: 445–455.Google Scholar
  126. Mackay GR (1977) Introgression of S alleles into forage rape, Brassica napus L., from turnip, B. campestris L. ssp. rapifera. Euphytica 26: 511–519.Google Scholar
  127. Matsuzawa Y, Mekiyanon S, Kaneko Y, Bang SW, Wakui K, Takahata Y (1999) Male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica rapa L. carrying Eruca sativa cytoplasm. Plant Breed 118: 82–84.Google Scholar
  128. McNaughton IH, Munro IK (1972) Heterosis and its possible exploitation in swedes (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera). Euphytica 21: 518–522.Google Scholar
  129. McNaughton IH, Thow RF (1972) Swedes and Turnips. Field Crop Abstr 25: 1–12.Google Scholar
  130. McNaughton IH, Mackay GR, Snell CL (1975) ARC Project 9: Brassica wide crosses. Scott Crop Res Inst Ann Rep 1985: 15–16.Google Scholar
  131. Mohammed A (1935) Pollination studies in tara (Brassica napus L. var. dichotoma Prain) and sarson (Brassica campestris L. var. sarson Prain). Indian J Agric Sci 5: 125–154.Google Scholar
  132. Monteiro AA, Gabelman WH, Williams PH (1988) Use of sodium-chloride solution to overcome self-incompatibility in Brassica campestris. Hortscience 23: 876–877.Google Scholar
  133. Mun J, Kwon S, Yang T, Kim H, Choi B, Baek S, Kim J, Jin M, Kim Jin A, Lim M, Lee S, Kim H, Kim H, Lim Y, Park B (2008) The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa. BMC Genomics 9: 280. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Nakanish T, Hinata K (1973) Effective time for CO2 gas treatment in overcoming self-incompatibility in brassica. Plant Cell Physiol 14: 873–879.Google Scholar
  135. Namai H, Hosoda T (1968) Studies on the practicality of artificial rutabaga SR lines obtained from Interspecific Crosses between Shogoin kabu (Brassica campestris ssp. rapifera and kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongyloides)). J Jpn Soc Grassl Sci 14: 171–176.Google Scholar
  136. Nazeer A, Tanki MI (1994) Inheritance of root characters in turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Indian J Genet Plant Breed 54: 247–252.Google Scholar
  137. Nichol W, Westwood C, Dumbleton A, Amyes J (2003) Brassica wintering for dairy cows: overcoming the challenges. In: Proceedings of the South Island Dairy Event 2003. South Island Dairy Event, Canterbury, New Zealand, pp. 154–172.Google Scholar
  138. Nieuwhof M, Wiering D (1961) Testing cabbage plants for clubroot resistance (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron). Euphytica 10: 191–200.Google Scholar
  139. Ockenden DJ (1974) The value of stored pollen in incompatibility studied in Brassica. Incomp Newsl 4: 17–19.Google Scholar
  140. Okawa Y (1985) Occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica campestris and comparison with that of B. napus. Bull Natl Inst Agric Sci Jpn D 1–50.Google Scholar
  141. Olsson G (1960a) Self-incompatibility and outcrossing in rape and white mustard. Hereditas 46: 241–252.Google Scholar
  142. Olsson G (1960b) Species crosses within the genus Brassica. II. Artificial B. napus L. Hereditas 46: 351–386.Google Scholar
  143. Olsson G (1963) Induced polyploids in Brassica. In: Akerberg E, Hagberg A (eds.) Recent Plant Breeding Research, Svalof 1946–1961. Wiley, New York, NY and London, pp. 179–192.Google Scholar
  144. Olsson G, Ellerstrom S (1980) Polyploid breeding in Europe. In: Tsunoda S, Hinata K (eds.) Brassica crops and Wild allies. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, pp. 167–190.Google Scholar
  145. Palmer TP (1983) Forage brassicas. In: Wratt G (ed.) Plant breeding in New Zealand. Butterworths, Wellington, pp. 63–70.Google Scholar
  146. Patterson HD, Williams ER, Hunter EA (1978) Block designs for variety trials. J Agric Sci Camb 90: 395–400.Google Scholar
  147. Pierre J, Renard M (2002) Pollen longevity of oil seed rape. Ocl-Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides 9: 11–13.Google Scholar
  148. Pink DAC (1993) Swede and turnip Brassica napus L. var. napobrassica, B. rapa L. var. glabra. In: Kalloo G, Bergh BO (eds.) Genetic improvement of vegetable crops. Oxford, Pergamon Press, pp. 511–519.Google Scholar
  149. Pivovarova NS (1979) Breeding material of culinary turnip and swede and methods of evaluating it. Byulleten’ Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Rastenievodstva 90: 32–38.Google Scholar
  150. Popovici D, Ciubotariu C, Tonigar D (1992) New forage swede cv. Victoria. Cercetari Agronomice Moldova 24: 135–140.Google Scholar
  151. Quazi MH (1988) Interspecific hybrids between Brassica.napus L. and Brassica.oleracea L. developed by embryo culture. Theor Appl Genet 75: 309–318.Google Scholar
  152. Quiros CF, Paterson AH (2004) Genome mapping and analysis in Brassica. In: Pua EC, Douglas CJ (eds.) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, Vol. 54. Springer, Berlin, pp. 31–42.Google Scholar
  153. Ramsay LD, Bradshaw JE, Griffiths DW, Kearsey MJ (2001) The inheritance of quantitative traits in Brassica napus ssp rapifera (swedes): augmented triple test cross analyses of production characters. Euphytica 121: 65–72.Google Scholar
  154. Ramsay LD, Bradshaw JE, Kearsey MJ (1994a) The inheritance of quantitative traits in swedes (Brassica napus L. spp. rapifera). Diallel analysis of dry matter yield. J Genet Breed 48: 253–257.Google Scholar
  155. Ramsay LD, Bradshaw JE, Kearsey MJ (1994b) The inheritance of quantitative traits in Brassica napus spp. rapifera (swedes): augmented triple test cross analysis of yield. Heredity 73: 84–91.Google Scholar
  156. Reiner L, Gladis T, Amon H, Emmerling-Skala A (2005) The ‘Bavarian Turnip’ – a rediscovered local vegetable variety of Brassica rapa L. Metzg. var. rapa. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52: 111–113.Google Scholar
  157. Rusholme RL, Higgins EE, Walsh JA, Lydiate DJ (2007) Genetic control of broad-spectrum resistance to turnip mosaic virus in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). J Gen Virol 88: 3177–3186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ruuth P (1988) Resistance of cruciferous crops to turnip root fly. J Agric Sci Finl 60: 269–279.Google Scholar
  159. Sakamoto K, Nishio T (2001) Distribution of S haplotypes in commercial cultivars of Brassica rapa. Plant Breed 120: 155–161.Google Scholar
  160. Schreijgrond W, Vos H (1954) Investigation on the susceptibility to clubroot. Euphytica 3: 125–129.Google Scholar
  161. Sharma TR, Singh BM (1992) Transfer of resistance to Alternaria brassicae in Brassica juncea through interspecific hybridization among Brassica. J Genet Breed 46: 373–378.Google Scholar
  162. Shattuck VI, Proudfoot KG (1990) Rutabaga breeding. Plant Breed Rev 8: 217–248.Google Scholar
  163. Shattuck VI, Stobbs LW (1987) Evaluation of rutabaga cultivars for turnip mosaic virus resistance and the inheritance of resistance. HortScience 22: 935–937.Google Scholar
  164. Shebalina MA (1968) The history of the botanical investigation and classification of turnip. Bull Appl Bot Genet Plant Breed 38: 44–87.Google Scholar
  165. Shebalina MA (1974) Turnip, fodder turnip and swede. Kolos, Leningrad, USSR, Moscow.Google Scholar
  166. Shebalina MA, Sazonova LV (1985) Korneplodnye rasteniya: semeistvo Kapustnye – repa, turneps, bryukva, red’ka, redis (Root crops: Brassicaceae family – turnip, fodder turnip, swede, radish). Agropromizdat, Leningrad, USSR, Moscow.Google Scholar
  167. Shibutani S, Okamura T (1954) On the classification of turnips in Japan with regard to the epidermal layer of the seed. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 22: 235–238.Google Scholar
  168. Shiga T (1970) Rape breeding by interspecific crossing between Brassicca napus and Brassica campestris in Japan. Jpn Agric Res Q 5: 5–10.Google Scholar
  169. Sinskaia EN (1928) The oleiferous plants and root crops of the family Cruciferae. Bull Appl Bot Genet Plant Breed 19: 555–626.Google Scholar
  170. Smith RH, Earl CR, Matheson NA (1974) The probable role of S-methylcysteine sulphoxide in kale poisoning in ruminants. Biochemical Society Transactions 2: 101–104.Google Scholar
  171. Smith BM, Jackson JC (1976) The controlled pollination of seeding vegetable crops by means of blowflies. Hortic Res 16: 53–55.Google Scholar
  172. Snell CL (1978) Brassica oleracea x B. campestris hybrids in forage rape and swede (B. napus) breeding. In: Interspecific hybridisation in plant breeding. Proceedings of the 8th Eucarpia Congress. Eucarpia, Madrid, Spain, pp. 339–343.Google Scholar
  173. Snowden RJ, Winter H, Diestel A, Sacristan MD (2000) Development and characterisation of Brassica napus-Sinapis arvensis addition lines exhibiting resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans. Theor Appl Genet 101: 1008–1014.Google Scholar
  174. Song KM, Osborn TC (1992) Polyphyletic origins of Brassica napus: new evidence based on organelle and nuclear RFLP analyses. Genome 35: 992–1001.Google Scholar
  175. Sovero LMJ (1988) Cytoplasmic male sterility in turnip-rape (Brassica campestris L.). Dissert Abstr Int B Sci Eng 48: 2515B.Google Scholar
  176. Spence JA, Aitchison GU, Sykes AR (1980) Broken mouth (premature incisor loss) in sheep: the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. J Comp Pathol 90: 275–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Stewart AV (2002) A review of Brassica species, cross-pollination and implications for pure seed production in New Zealand. Proc Agron Soc N Z 32/33: 63–82.Google Scholar
  178. Stobbs LW, Shattuck VI (1988) Turnip mosaic-virus strains in Southern Ontario, Canada. Plant Dis 73: 208–212.Google Scholar
  179. Sun ZD, Wang ZN, Tu JX, Zhang JF, Yu FQ, McVetty PBE, Li GY (2007) An ultradense genetic recombination map for Brassica napus, consisting of 13551 SRAP markers. Theor Appl Genet 114: 1305–1317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Tao G, Rui Y (1986) Use of CO2 and salt solution to overcome self-incompatibility of Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris ssp. pekinensis). Crucif Newsl 11: 75–76.Google Scholar
  181. Timmons AM, Obrien ET, Charters YM, Dubbels SJ, Wilkinson MJ (1995) Assessing the risks of wind pollination from fields of genetically modified Brassica napus ssp. oleifera. Euphytica 85: 417–423.Google Scholar
  182. Tomlinson JA, Ward CM (1982) Selection for immunity in swede (Brassica napus) to infection by turnip mosaic-virus. Ann Appl Biol 101: 43–50.Google Scholar
  183. Toxopeus H (1974) Outline of the evolution of turnips and coles in Europe and the origin of winter rape, swede-turnips and rape kales. In: Wills AB, North C (eds.) Cruciferae 1974: Proceedings of Eucarpia Meeting. Scottish Horticultural Research Institute, Dundee, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  184. Toxopeus H, Janssen AMP (1975) Clubroot resistance in turnip II. the slurry screening method and clubroot races in the Netherlands. Euphytica 24: 751–755.Google Scholar
  185. UN (1935) Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization. Jpn J Bot 7: 389–452.Google Scholar
  186. Verma JK, Sodhi YS, Mukhopadhyay A, Arumugam N, Gupta V, Pental D, Pradhan AK (2000) Identification of stable maintainer and fertility restorer lines for ‘Polima’ CMS in Brassica campestris. Plant Breed 119: 90–92.Google Scholar
  187. Vipond JE, Dingwall WS, Fitzsimons J, Hunter EA (1990) Supplementary feeding of sheep on brassica root crops. In: Pollet GE (ed.) Meat and milk from forage crops. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No 24. University of Reading, Reading, UK, pp. 217–221.Google Scholar
  188. Vipond JE, King ME, Wetherill GZ (1989) Evaluation of swede varieties with high, medium and low dry matter content in finishing systems for crossbred lambs from hill areas. British Society of Animal Production Winter meeting 1989, Paper No. 59.Google Scholar
  189. Voorrips RE, Jongerius MC, Kanne HJ, Voorrips RE (1997) Mapping of two genes for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) in a population of doubled haploid lines of Brassica oleracea by means of RFLP and AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 75–82.Google Scholar
  190. Voss A, Snowdon RJ, Luhs W, Friedt W, King GJ (2000) Intergeneric transfer of nematode resistance from Raphanus sativus into the Brassica napus genome. Acta Hortic 539: 129–134.Google Scholar
  191. Waddington KD, Visscher PK, Herbert TJ, Richter MR (1994) Comparisons of forager distributions from matched honey bee colonies in suburban environments. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35: 423–429.Google Scholar
  192. Walsh JA, Rusholme RL, Hughes SL, Jenner CE, Bambridge JM, Lydiate DJ, Green SK (2002) Different classes of resistance to turnip mosaic virus in Brassica rapa. Eur J Plant Pathol 108: 15–20.Google Scholar
  193. Williams PH (1966) A system for the determination of races of Plasmodiophora brassicae that infect cabbage and rutabaga. Phytopathology 56: 624–626.Google Scholar
  194. Williams PH (1980) Bee-sticks, an aid in pollinating cruciferae. Hortscience 15: 802–803.Google Scholar
  195. Williams IH, Martin AP, White RP (1987) The effect of insect pollination on plant development and seed production in winter oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.). J Agric Sci Camb 109: 135–139.Google Scholar
  196. Williamson CJ (1981) Rooted leaf cuttings as an aid in screening for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae. Ann Appl Biol 98: 479–489.Google Scholar
  197. Williamson CJ (1984) Yield losses due to powdery mildew in swedes and forage rape. In: Macfarlane Smith WH, Hodgkin T (eds.) Proceedings of Better Brassica Conference 1984. Scottish Crop research Institute, Dundee, pp. 123–132.Google Scholar
  198. Williamson CJ, Hodgkin T (1987) Genetic control of resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae. Scott Crop Res Inst Ann Rep 1987: 118–119.Google Scholar
  199. Wit F (1966) The use of inbred lines in turnips breeding. Acta Agric Scand Suppl 16: 65–67.Google Scholar
  200. Wit F, van de Weg M (1964) Clubroot resistance in turnips (Brassica campestris L.) I. Physiologic races of the parasite and their indentification in mixtures. Euphytica 13: 9–18.Google Scholar
  201. Young NE, Austin AR, Orr RJ, Newton JE, Taylor RJ (1982) A comparison of a hybrid stubble turnips (cv. Appin) with other cruciferous catch crops for lamb fattening. 2. Animal performance and toxicological evaluation. Grass Forage Sci 37: 39.Google Scholar
  202. Yu FQ, Lydiate DJ, Rimmer SR (2008) Identification and mapping of a third blackleg resistance locus in Brassica napus derived from B. rapa subsp sylvestris. Genome 51: 64–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Yu SC, Zhang FL, Yu RB, Zou YM, Qi JN, Zhao XY, Yu YJ, Zhang DS, Li L (2009) Genetic mapping and localization of a major QTL for seedling resistance to downy mildew in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis). Mol Breed 23: 573–590.Google Scholar
  204. Zhang FL, Wang M, Liu XC, Zhao XY, Yang JP (2008) Quantitative trait loci analysis for resistance against Turnip mosaic virus based on a doubled-haploid population in Chinese cabbage. Plant Breed 127: 82–86.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research LimitedChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations