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Dosimetry and Temperature Aspects of Mobile-Phone Exposures

  • Paolo Bernardi
  • Stefano Pisa
  • Marta Cavagnaro
  • Emanuel Piuzzi
  • James C. Lin
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems book series (AEFL, volume 5)

Abstract

Dosimetric assessment is an import subject in studying the effects from exposure to wireless communication devices. It provides a quantitative measure for epidemiological studies and in the development of exposure guidelines. Dosimetry may be accomplished either numerically or experimentally, or by a combination of both since each technique has its own advantages and drawbacks. While numerical dosimetry forms the focus of this chapter, some descriptions of experimental dosimetry are included to illustrate the complementary nature of numerical investigations and experimental studies, especially in testing against compliance of mobile phones with exposure guidelines. Numerical dosimetry requires the use of detailed anatomical models of the human head for mobile phones used in a conventional manner or the use of human torsos in the case of mobile terminals of various communication systems that involve body-worn devices. Moreover, detailed models of the mobile phone are often required to account for the antenna structure, phone case, and internal components of the device. The dosimetric quantity, specific absorption rate (SAR), and associated induced temperature increments in tissues may be computed using different analytical and numerical techniques. One of the most widely applied numerical techniques is the FDTD method; it will be briefly discussed in this chapter. Recent dosimetric research will be summarized, including the influence of different metallic implants worn by mobile phone users and the environment in which exposure occurs, such as inside a vehicle. Some topics may be of interest to the general public, research scientists, or cell phone manufacturers and operators because of their importance in mobile phone compliance testing. Other topics discussed will address the specific concerns of mobile phone use by children. Among the topics of technical interest are the influence of the pinna on computed SAR, effect of averaging procedures on SAR values, and the variation of results due to the uncertainties associated with the dielectric parameters used to characterize human tissues.

Keywords

Mobile Phone Human Head Finite Difference Time Domain Head Model Specific Absorption Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Bernardi
    • 1
  • Stefano Pisa
    • 1
  • Marta Cavagnaro
    • 1
  • Emanuel Piuzzi
    • 1
  • James C. Lin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversita’ di Roma “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of BioengineeringUniversity of Illinois – ChicagoChicagoUSA

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