In this introductory chapter we start with a brief historical note on the one-sample problem (Section 1.1). A first step in a data analysis is often the graphical exploration of the data. In Section 1.2 we give some graphical techniques which may be very useful in assessing the goodness-of-fit. In this section also most of the example datasets are introduced which are further used to illustrate methods in the remainder of the first part of the book. One of the earliest goodness-of-fit tests is the Pearson chi-squared test. Although it is definitely not the best choice in many situations, it is still often applied. It also often serves as a cornerstone in the construction of other goodness-offit tests. We give an overview of the most important issues in applying the Pearson test in Section 1.3. Moreover, many of the more recent methods still rely on the intuition of this test.
KeywordsNull Distribution Nuisance Parameter Multinomial Distribution Pearson Test Yolk Lipid
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