Graphite-Electrolyte Interface in Lithium-Ion Batteries
The recent commercialization of advanced lithium batteries is mainly due to the breakthrough in the stabilization of the anode-electrolyte interface. Although metallic lithium has an energy density (3860 mAh/g) higher than that of other alternative anodes, its poor performance and safety issues related to the low melting point of lithium (180 °C), dendritic growth during lithium deposition (charge), and high reactivity toward the electrolytes have hindered the commercialization of rechargeable lithium-anode batteries.
There have been several approaches to solve the problem of lithium anode. The development of lithium alloys, particularly the binary and ternary alloys, has received considerable attention (see Chapter 9 of this book). However, the performance of these alloys is unsatisfactory mainly due to the large volume change (100–200%) during lithiation and delithiation processes. This expansion and contraction processes may cause the alloy particles to crack and lose contact with the electrode substrate. In addition, the lithium alloys with high concentration of lithium are very reactive toward the electrolytes and cause decomposition. Therefore a problem similar to that of the metallic lithium also exists for Li-alloy anodes. Recently, some success has been made using intermetallic alloys such as Cu6Sn5 that insert lithium topotactically over a wide composition range Li x Cu6Sn5 (0<x<13).1 Despite the good volumetric energy density of these alloys, their gravimetric energy density is poor and there is a significant capacity loss during multiple cycling.
KeywordsEnergy Density Lithium Batterie Alloy Particle Intermetallic Alloy Contraction Process
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