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Carbonaceous and Graphitic Anodes

  • M. Winter
  • K. -C. Moeller
  • J. O. Besenhard

In rechargeable lithium ion batteries the main1 application of carbon is the use as a host anode accessible by lithium cations via electrochemical insertion, the lithium being provided by another insertion material used as host cathode (Figure 5.1 A). This “electro-insertion” reaction is basically a host/guest solid state redox reaction involving electrochemical charge transfer coupled with insertion of mobile guest ions (in lithium ion batteries, these are lithium ions) into the structure of a solid host, which is a mixed electronic and ionic conductor. The major structural features of the host are kept after the insertion of the guests. A common convention in the literature is that “intercalation” is regarded as a special case of “insertion”. The term “intercalation” implies the restricting condition that a layered host takes up guests within its interlayer gaps (“galleries”), which may result in a volume change perpendicular to the layers, but which causes no other structural changes. However, according to this strict definition, even graphite would be not a pure intercalation host, as during Li accomodation the stacking sequence changes by sliding of the graphene layers. Therefore, in this review the term intercalation will be used where the historical conventions or the present practice make its use appropriate, i.e.,we will use the term lithium-graphite intercalation compounds for lithiated graphites (cf. Refs. 1–16).

Keywords

Lithium Cation Layered Host Major Structural Feature Solid Host Historical Convention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2003, First softcover printing 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic MaterialsGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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