Advertisement

Lithium Batteries for Medical Applications

  • E. S. Takeuchi
  • R. A. Leising
  • D. M. Spillman
  • R. Rubino
  • H. Gan
  • K. J. Takeuchi
  • A. C. Marschilok

This chapter on lithium batteries for medical applications is not meant to be an exhaustive review, but rather a broad overview of some of the different types of lithium batteries that power implantable medical devices. The battery systems described in this chapter fall into two major categories, primary or single use cells containing lithium metal anodes, and secondary or rechargeable systems utilizing lithium ion chemistry. Primary lithium batteries have been used for implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug pumps, neurostimulators and cardiac defibrillators. Secondary lithium ion batteries have been used with left ventricular assist devices, total artificial hearts, and implantable hearing assist devices.

The first human implant of a lithium battery, a lithium/iodine cell that powered an implantable cardiac pacemaker, was conducted thirty years ago.1Since that time several different lithium anode batteries have been developed and used successfully in a diverse set of implantable medical devices. The cells used in these devices are typically developed for the application and have used various combinations of cathode, electrolyte and separator, to meet the specific requirements of a device. Despite the various approaches that have been used, there are several power source characteristics that are desirable across all applications.

Keywords

Cardiac Pacemaker Lithium Metal Artificial Heart Total Artificial Heart Anode Batterie 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C.F. Holmes, J. Power Sources 97–98 (2001) 739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Greatbatch, The Making of the Pacemaker (Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY, 2000) p. 119.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Greatbatch, R. McLean, W. Holmes, C. Holmes, IEEE Trans. On Biomed. EngBME-26 (1979) 306.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.L. Schmidt, P. M. Skarstad, J. Power Sources 65 (1997) 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.C. Liang, C.F. Holmes, Prog. Batt. & Solar Cells 2 (1979) 50.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.M. Skarstad, in Batteries for Implantable Biomedical Devices, B.B. Owens, Ed.,(Plenum Press, New York, 1986) p. 215.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.R. Schlaikjer, in Lithium Batteries, J.-P. Gabano, Ed., (Academic Press, New York,1983) p. 303.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E.S. Takeuchi, S.A. Smesko, in 7th Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, Long Beach, CA 1992.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Greatbatch, C.F. Holmes, E.S. Takeuchi, S.J. Ebel, in Cardiostim 96, Nice, France 1996.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Watanabe, M. Fukuda, U.S. Patent No. 3,536,532 (1970).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. Watanabe, T. Nakajima, R. Hagiwara, J. Power Sources 20 (1987) 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.S. Takeuchi, W.D.K. Clark, in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, AComprehensive Textbook, N.A.M. Estes, A.S. Manolis and P. Wang, Eds., (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994) p. 123.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.J. Takeuchi, A.C. Marschilok, S.M. Davis, R.A. Leising, E.S. Takeuchi, Coord. 700 Chem. Rev. 219–221 (2001) 283.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Piffard, F. Leroux, D. Guyomard, J.-L. Mansot, M. Tournoux, J. Power Sources 68(1997) 698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.A. Leising, W.C. Thiebolt, E.S. Takeuchi, Inorg. Chem. 33 (1994) 5733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E.S. Takeuchi, W.C. Thiebolt, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135 (1988) 2691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Norton, C. Schmidt in Proceedings of the Symposium on Batteries for Portable Applications and Electric Vehicles, C. F. Holmes and A.R. Landgrebe, Eds., PV 97-18, p.389.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Crespi, C. Schmidt, J. Norton, K. Chen, P. Skarstad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148(2001) A30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Schmidt, G. Tarn, E. Scott, J. Norton, K. Chen, 11th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Monterey, CA, June 23–28, 2002, Abstract 422.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Gan, E.S. Takeuchi, J. Power Sources 62 (1996) 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Gan, E.S. Takeuchi, ECS Joint International MeetingHI, Oct. 17-22, 1999, Abstract 332.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Gan, E.S. Takeuchi, ECS Proceedings Volume 99–25, p. 417.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Fehrmann, R. Frommel, R. Wolf, U.S. Patent No. 5,587,258 (December 24, 1996).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Drews, R. Wolf, G. Fehrmann, R. Staub, J. Power Sources 80 (1999) 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Drews, G. Fehrmann, R. Staub, R. Wolf, J. Power Sources 97–98 (2001) 747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Drews, R. Wolf, G. Fehrmann, R. Staub, J. Power Sources 65 (1997) 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. M. Spillman, E. S. Takeuchi, 14th Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, Long Beach, CA, 1999.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C.F. Holmes, R.A. Leising, D.M. Spillman, E.S. Takeuchi, ITE Battery Utters 1 (1999) 132.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Li, E. Murphy, J. Winnick, P.A. Kohl. J. Power Sources 102 (2001) 294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. S. Rubino, H. Gan, K. J. Takeuchi, 17th Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, Long Beach, CA, 2002.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Spotnitz, in Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries, W.A. van Schalkwijk and B. Scrosati,Eds., (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2002) 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Onnerud, J. Shi, R. Chamberlain, S.K. Singh, P. Ralbovsky, B. Barnett, C. Lampe-Onnerud, 201st Electrochemical Society Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, May 12-–7, 2002,Abstract No. 109.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D.D. MacNeil, T.D. Hatchard, J. R. Dahn, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 (2001) A663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Jacobs, J. Albright, E. Marlinski, C. Deirmengian, R. McClure, H. Valenta, E.S.Takeuchi, D. Tamez, J. Conger, O.H. Frazier, R. Jarvik, ASAIO 45 (1999) p.165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Tamez, J.L. Conger, G. Jacobs, I. Gregoric, R.W. Inman, B.R. Radovancevic, S.M. Moore, K. Eya, H. Eichstaedt, R.K. Jarvik, O.H. Frazier, ASAIO 46 (2000) p. 168.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G.K. MacClean, P.A. Aiken, W.A. Adams, T. Mussivand, 7. Power Sources 56 (1995)69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    For more information regarding TAH devices, see the Jewish Hospital, University ofLouisville, Health Sciences Center. Website: www.heartpioneers.comGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R.A. Leising, M.J. Palazzo, E.S. Takeuchi, K.J. Takeuchi, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 (2001) A838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Passerini, B.B. Owens, J. Power Sources 97–98 (2001) 750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C.L. Schmidt, P.M.Skarstad, J. Power Sources 97–98 (2001) 742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    E.S.Takeuchi, R.A. Leising, 201st Electrochemical Society Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, May 12–17, 2002, Abstract No. 260.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2003, First softcover printing 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. Takeuchi
    • 1
  • R. A. Leising
    • 1
  • D. M. Spillman
    • 1
  • R. Rubino
    • 1
  • H. Gan
    • 1
  • K. J. Takeuchi
    • 1
  • A. C. Marschilok
    • 2
  1. 1.Wilson Greatbatch TechnologiesClarenceU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations