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Polyanion-Based Positive Electrode Materials

  • C. Masquelier
  • S. Patoux
  • C. Wurm
  • M. Morcrette

Over the last 15 years the vast majority of fundamental and technological contributions on the search for better positive electrode materials has been devoted to transition metal oxides such as Li x M02 (M= Co, Ni, Mn), Li x Mn204, Li x V205 or LixV3O8.1 The first two classes of materials, built on close-packed oxygen stacking adopt bi-dimensional and tridimensional crystal structures, respectively. Lithium ions may be easily intercalated or extracted from these structures in a reversible manner. These oxides are reasonably good ionic and electronic conductors and lithium insertion/extraction proceeds while operating on the M4+/M3+ redox, located at around 4V vs. Li+/Li. Cost considerations brought some special attention to the possible use of LiFe02 that may be prepared in the same crystallographic arrangement as of LiCo02 through ion exchange from α-NaFe02.2 Electrochemical extraction of lithium would give access to the Fe4+/Fe3+ redox couple but no stability of Li1−x Fe02 was successfully demonstrated yet.

The peculiar structure of the two-dimensional oxides Li1−x M02 (M= Co, Ni, Fe, Mn) lead to structural instabilities when the number x of extracted lithium is high (end of charge). Irreversible motion of transition metals within the lithium layers may occur and lead to important capacity loss on cycling. In practical use, for instance, only 150 mAh/g out of the theoretical 273 mAh/g is used for LiCo02 in commercial Li-ion batteries.

Keywords

Metal Oxide Energy Technology Redox Couple Transition Metal Oxide Capacity Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2003, First softcover printing 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Masquelier
    • 1
  • S. Patoux
    • 1
  • C. Wurm
    • 1
  • M. Morcrette
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des SolidesUMR CNRS 6007, Université Picardie Jules VerneAmiensFrance

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