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Spinel Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

  • Y. Xia
  • M. Yoshio

Secondary lithium batteries have long been studied because they exhibit the highest specific energy among all rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, the limited safety and rechargeability associated with the use of metallic lithium has prevented their widespread acceptance in the market. Unsatisfactory results with lithium metal have directed the research towards the development of the so called “rocking-chair” or “lithium-ion” batteries (LIB), based on a transition metal oxide cathode and a carbon anode.1–3 In 1990, Sony Energytec Inc. commercialized this type of batteries.3 Today, lithium ion batteries are used in cellular phones, notebook-size personal computers, video cameras, and, to a limited extent, in electric vehicle (EV) applications. Most commonly, the negative electrode acts as a “lithium sink” and the positive LiAzBy electrode acts as a “lithium source”. Layered lithium transition metal oxides and spinel lithium manganese oxide have been selected as preferred cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Table 12.1 summarizes the cathode materials that have been, or possibly will be, used in LIB. LiCo02 is the cathode of choice for small-size batteries. In view of the economic and environmental advantages, spinel-structured manganese oxides have demonstrated to be the most promising positive electrode materials for large-size batteries for EV and industrial applications, as they are cheaper, less toxic, and show higher safety.

Keywords

Cathode Material Electric Vehicle Manganese Oxide Transition Metal Oxide Lithium Metal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2003, First softcover printing 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Xia
    • 1
  • M. Yoshio
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistrySaga UniversitySagaJapan

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