Functional Mitral Regurgitation in the Critically Ill

  • J. Poelaert


Functional mitral regurgitation is the consequence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the presence of an anatomically normal mitral valve. Systolic left ventricular failure is often the cause of congestive heart failure, which is a frequent reason for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The most frequent cause of left ventricular dysfunction is ischemic heart disease. Both the ventricle and the mitral valve apparatus are involved in the pathogenesis of functional mitral regurgitation. The mitral valve is a complex apparatus, composed of the mitral valve leaflets, the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the related regional area of the ventricular wall (Fig. 1). Malfunction of one or more components of this apparatus engenders improper functioning of the mitral valve.

Fig. 1.

The anatomy of the normal mitral valve. The different segments as used by cardiac surgeons, have been indicated.


Mitral Valve Mitral Regurgitation Papillary Muscle Functional Mitral Regurgitation Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Poelaert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative MedicineUZ BrusselBrusselsBelgium

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