Changes to Taste Perception in the Food Industry: Use of Cyclodextrins
Healthy bioactive substances are related to health maintenance but usually have unpleasant tastes. Due to the consumer’s demand for pleasant-tasting food at low costs, the food industry removes a lot of healthy compounds in order to standardize the final taste of industrialized foods. It creates a dilemma between consumers’ demands for taste versus health foods. Cyclodextrin (CD) is a toroidal-shape cyclical oligosaccharide that has a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic external area. Components that have a chemical affinity to the cavity and that fit in it may form inclusion complexes. Thus, molecules encapsulated by CDs can enhance solubility, bioavailability, and stability; reduce flavor evaporation and mask both odors and tastes; CDs could also be used to convert oils into free-flowing powders. This cyclic oligosaccharide is widely used in the pharmaceutical area; they also have potential to improve sensory characteristics of foods. CDs are utilized to encapsulate flavors and pigments protecting against evaporation and oxidation, and also to control the release of guest molecules. CDs can be added to foods to encapsulate unpleasant-tasting molecules and have a potential application in the inclusion of unpleasant-tasting bioactive compounds in health foods. Furthermore, CDs can be used to create “smart” food packages with release of healthy compounds plus the possibility to extend food shelf life. For food rheology improvement, CDs do not bring economically viable benefits yet; however, they can potentially improve biodegradable film rheology used for “smart” food packages production. CDs have low toxicity when orally ingested, although their use in food has some limitations. They are an excellent tool to help the food industry introduce new solutions for the dilemma taste versus health foods. However, the commercial application of new techniques depends on a legally approved policy and an incentive of the functional foods consumption and commercialization besides an increase in the society’s demand for health foods and their willingness to pay for them.
KeywordsInclusion Complex Healthy Food Functional Food Bitter Taste Inclusion Complex Formation
Acceptable daily intake
Differential scanning calorimetry
Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Drug Administration
Fourier transform infrared
Generally recognized as safe
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Nuclear Overhauser effect
Rotating-frame Overhauser spectroscopy
World Health Organization
The authors thank the support of the Universidade Paranaense and the Postgraduate Course of Master in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture at the Universidade Paranaense.
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