Manipulation of Diet to Alter Appetite

  • Joanne A. Harrold
  • Jason C. G. Halford


Reductions in caloric intake invariably result in compensatory increases in feelings of hunger. However, these negative consequences of energy restriction can potentially be managed through the consumption of a satiating low energy diet. Experimental data clearly demonstrate that differing foods, manipulated for the macronutrient content, energy density, and portion size can produce marked changes in subsequent feelings of satiety. The effects are dependent in the most part on differences in the sensory experience and cognitive impact of these foods, and their physiological impact on episodic physiological satiety mechanism such as gastrointestinal function and gut peptide release. It is generally accepted that satiety hierarchy exists between the macronutrients with protein – carbohydrate – fat. However, despite this, the effects of various macronutrients on subsequent energy intake are more equivocal. The effects of differing forms of protein on appetite in particular are poorly understood. Dietary fats are considered to be a key contributor to obesity despite the strong preabsorptive satiety signals generated by free fatty acids. This paradox may be explained by passive overconsumption of the energy dense high fat food and palatability-driven active overconsumption. As with fats, the effect of carbohydrates on appetite depend heavily on their form, with simple carbohydrates producing pronounced but transient effects on appetite regulation and complex carbohydrates producing more sustained changes in appetite. Moreover, nondigestible carbohydrates have a variety of effects on appetite depending on their form (viscosity, solubility, and fermentability). Decreasing energy density, with or without accompanying changes in portion size, also appear effective strategies for reducing caloric intake at least over a number of days. To conclude, dietary manipulations of macronutrient content, energy density, and portion size do impact on appetite expression and these have the potential to produce sustainable changes in caloric intake needed for weight control. However, the long-term effects of such dietary manipulations on appetite remain to be robustly demonstrated.


Energy Intake Portion Size Reduce Energy Intake Satiety Signal Energy Dense Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Agouti gene related peptide


Area postrema


Arcuate nucleus


Cocaine and amphetamine related transcript




Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus


Glucagon-like peptide 1






Lateral hypothalamic area


Nucleus accumbens


Neuropeptide Y


Nucleus of the solitary tract




Paraventricular nucleus


Peptide YY


Visual analogue scales


Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus


  1. Adam TC, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Br J Nutr. 2005;93:845–51.Google Scholar
  2. Ballard-Barbash R, Graubard I, Krebs-Smith SM, Schatzkin A, Thompson FE. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:98–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell EA, Rolls BJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1010–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell EA, Castellanos VH, Pelkman CL, Thorwart ML, Rolls BJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:412–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Birch LL, Deysher M. Learn Motiv. 1985;16:341–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birch LL, Deysher M. Appetite. 1986;7:323–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birch LL, McPhee LS, Shoba BC, Steinberg L, Krehbiel R. Learn Motiv. 1987;18:301–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birch LL, McPhee LS, Bryant JL, Johnson SL. Appetite. 1993;20:83–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blundell JE. Trends Pharm Sci. 1991;12:147–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blundell JE, Macdiarmid JI. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:S63–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boden G, Chen X, Mozzoli M, Ryan I. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:3419–23.Google Scholar
  12. Campfield LA, Smith FJ. Int J Obes. 1990;14 Suppl 3:15–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cecil JE, Palmer CN, Wrieden W, Murrie J, Bolton-Smith C, Watt P, Wallis DJ, Hetherington MM. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:302–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, Kriauciunas A, Stephens TW, Nyce MR, Ohannesian JP, Marco CC, McKee LJ, Bauer TL. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:292–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dilberti N, Bordi PL, Conklin MT, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Obes Res. 2004;12:562–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doucet E, Imbeault P, St-Pieree S, Almeras N, Mauriege P, Richard D, Tremblay A. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:906–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibson GR, Beatty ER, Wang X, Cummings JH. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:975–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenway F, O’Neil CE, Stewart L, Rood J, Keenan M, Martin R. J Med Food. 2007;10:720–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fisher JO, Birch LL. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:226–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fisher JO, Liu Y, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86:174–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Halford, JCG, Blundell JE. Ann Med. 2000;32:222–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Halton Tl, Hu FB. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23:373–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Heini AF, Lara-Castro C, Kirk KA, Considine RV, Caro JF, Weinsier RL. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:1084–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hetherington M, Wood C, Lyburn SC. Nutr Neurosci. 2000;3:321–9.Google Scholar
  25. Hoad CL, Rayment P, Spiller RC, Marciani L, Alonso Bde C, Traynor C, Mela DJ, Peters HP, Gowland PA. J Nutr. 2004;134:2293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Nutr Rev. 2001;59:129–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kendall A, Levitsky DA, Strupp BJ, Lissner L. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1124–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kennedy E, Bowman S. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101:455–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. KEYS A. Science. 1950;112:371–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kral TVE, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:962–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Leahy KE, Birch LL, Fisher JO, Rolls BJ. Obesity. 2008a;16:1559–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leahy KE, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008b;88:1459–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lissner L, Levitsky DA, Strupp BJ, Kalkwarf HJ, Roe DA. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;37:763–7.Google Scholar
  34. Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke C, Hilner JE, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR. JAMA. 1999;282:1539–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maffeis C. J Pediatr. 1995;126:15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mars M, de Graaf C, de Groot CP, van Rossum CT, Kok FJ. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:122–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mattes RD, Rothacker D. Physiol Behav. 2001;74:551–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McCrory MA, Fuss PJ, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. J Nutr. 2000;130:276S–9S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Nasser J. Obes Rev. 2001;2:213–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pasman WJ, Saris WH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Obes Res. 1999;7:43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Raben A, Agerholm-Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Reed DR, Bachmanov AA, Beauchamp GK, Tordoff MG, Price RA. Behav Genet. 1997;27:373–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Akrout M, Bellisle F. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:573–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rolls BJ, Bells EA, Castellanos VH, Chow M, Pelkman CL, Thorwart ML. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:863–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rolls BJ, Engell D, Birch LL. J Am DieT Assoc. 2000;100:232–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1207–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Kral TVE, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Appetite. 2004a;42:63–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Obesity. 2007;15:1535–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004b;104:1570–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Saltzman E, Dallal GE, Roberts SB. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:1332–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Seagle HM, Davy BM, Grunwald G, Hill JO. Obes Res. 1997;5:78S.Google Scholar
  52. Shor-Posner G, Azar AP, Insinga S, Leibowitz SF. Physiol Behav. 1986;35:883–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stratford TR, Kelley AE, Simansky KJ. Brain Res. 1999;825:199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stubbs RJ, Ritz P, Coward WA, Prentice AM. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:330–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stubbs RJ, Johnstone AM, O’Reilly LM, Barton K, Reid C. Int J Obes. 1998;22:980–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thomas CD, Peters JC, Reed GW, Abumrad NN, Sun M, Hill JO. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:934–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Vermunt SHF, Pasman WJ, Schaafsman G, Kardinaal AFM. Obesity Rev. 2003;4:91–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Br J Nutr. 2004;92 Suppl 1:S35–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wolever TM. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:72–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kissileff Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behavior, School of PsychologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations