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Central Regulation of Appetite and Satiety Behavior

  • Edward B. Lee
  • Rexford S. Ahima
Chapter

Abstract

To maintain constant body weight, an organism must be able to sense and counterbalance different aspects of energy homeostasis including food intake, energy stores, and energy expenditure. The central nervous system is responsible for integrating peripheral signals of food intake and adiposity, and transforming these signals into the conscious feelings of appetite or satiety. These function to modulate eating behavior. While there remains much to be understood about the central regulation of appetite and satiety behaviors, there is some insight into the effects of peripheral signals on central networks. This review will discuss the effects of peripheral signals on specific brain circuits as a means to understand the CNS regulation of eating behavior. First, the effects of gastrointestinal signals such as cholecystokinin and ghrelin on vagal signaling to the hindbrain will be examined as an example of the effect of autonomic signaling on eating behavior. Second, secreted factors which act directly on CNS neurons will be discussed, including the effects of leptin and insulin on arcuate-hypothalamic circuits which influence appetite and satiety behavior. Additional peripheral signals with anorexic or orexogenic effects will be outlined. Finally, higher order brain circuits will be examined, and the areas in which our understanding of the central regulation of feeding are as yet poorly understood will be highlighted.

Keywords

Ventral Tegmental Area Energy Homeostasis Lateral Hypothalamic Area Anorexic Effect Inhibit Food Intake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

3v

Third ventricle

AGRP

Agouti related protein

Arc

Arcuate nucleus

CART

Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript

CCK

Cholecystokinin

CCK-1R

Cholecystokinin-1 receptor

CN

Cranial nerve

CNS

Central nervous system

CNTF

Ciliary neutrotrophic factor

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DMV

Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

LHA

Lateral hypothalamic area

MCH

Melanin concentrating hormone

α-MSH

α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone

NAc

Nucleus accumbens

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

NTS

Nucleus of the solitary tract

OB-Rb

Leptin receptor b (longest isoform)

OXY

Oxytocin

POMC

Proopiomelanocrotin

PVN

Paraventricular nucleus

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

VMN

Ventromedial nucleus

VTA

Ventral tegmental area

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support was provided by National Institute of Health grants Ro1-DK-062348, Po1-DK-049210 (R.S. Ahima), and T32-AG-00255 (E.B. Lee).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, School of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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