Ambient, On-Body, and Implantable Monitoring Technologies to Assess Dietary Behavior



Self-reports are frequently used in coaching programs on dietary behavior since they provide information on time of food consumption, food types, and amounts in the temporal resolution of individual meal and snack intakes. However, the accuracy of self-reports is influenced by the respondent’s motivation, memorizing, and literate capabilities. The manual labor to complete reports cannot be sustained for several weeks and months, as it would be needed for adequate diet coaching. Computer-based solutions have been developed to reduce the respondent’s effort in filling forms. More recently, sensor-based monitoring approaches were developed, referred to as Automatic Dietary Monitoring (ADM), which target to eliminate manual intake recording entirely. This chapter introduces a technology-oriented taxonomy of dietary behavior assessments. Sensing and information technology concepts are reviewed that have been demonstrated or are applicable for dietary behavior assessment in monitoring programs and out-of-lab studies. The information provided by these monitoring technologies is categorized in four dietary monitoring dimensions: intake schedule, eating microstructure, meal composition and preparation, and consumed food amount. ADM-based solutions were grouped according to fundamental properties, in on-body, implantable, and ambient and installed technologies. On-body and implantable monitoring technologies are particularly applicable to derive eating microstructure information, whereas ambient monitoring techniques are beneficial in assessing food preparation, up to estimation of calorie and biomarker content. ADM can effectively eliminate respondent effort for intake recording and improve information quality and detail, as confirmed in initial focused studies. While ADM-based solutions are currently limited to monitoring individual dietary behavior dimensions only, further research is expected to broaden their application and integrating them with computer-based manual monitoring. A configuration of ADM techniques according to the specific monitoring goal will enable long-term diet coaching programs outside laboratories to address various diet-related diseases.


Smart Card Dietary Behavior Food Amount Monitoring Technology Smart Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Automatic Dietary Monitoring






Personal Digital Assistant




  1. Abell TL, Malagelada, JR. Dig Dis Sci. 1988;33:982–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera JM. J Food Eng. 2005;67:3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amft O, Tröster G. PHC 2006: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, ICST, IEEE digital library; 2006. pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  4. Amft O, Lukowicz P. IEEE Perv Comput. 2009;8:8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amft O, Tröster, G. Artif Intell Med. 2008;42:121–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amft O, Tröster G. IEEE Perv Comput. 2009;8:62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amft O, Junker H, Tröster G. ISWC 2005: IEEE Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wearable Computers. IEEE Press; 2005a. pp. 160–3.Google Scholar
  8. Amft O, Stäger M, Lukowicz P, Tröster G. UbiComp 2005: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005b. vol 3660, pp. 56–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amft O, Kusserow M, Tröster G. BSN 2007: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, Springer, IFMBE Proceedings; 2007a. vol. 13, pp. 242–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Amft O, Kusserow M, Tröster G. BIBM 2007: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine. IEEE Press; 2007b. pp. 194–201.Google Scholar
  11. Amft O, Kusserow M, Tröster G. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009;56:1663–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Amft O, Bannach D, Pirkl G, Kreil M, Lukowicz P. PerHealth 2010: Proceedings of the First IEEE PerCom Workshop on Pervasive Healthcare. IEEE; 2010, pp. 298–303.Google Scholar
  13. Beasley J. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bechtold DA. J Genet. 2008;87:447–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beigl M, Gellersen H-W, Schmidt A. Comput Netw. 35:2001;401–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellisle F. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2003;13:189–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berkman ND, Bulik CM, Brownley KA, Lohr KN, Sedway JA, Rooks A, Gartlehner G. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2006.Google Scholar
  18. Biro G, Hulshof KFAM, Ovesen L, Cruz JAA, Group EFCOSUM. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(Suppl 2):S25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boiron M, Rouleau P, Atipo B, Picon L, Metman EH. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44:529–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burke BS. J Am Diet Assoc. 1947;23:1041–6.Google Scholar
  21. Burke LE, Warziski M, Starrett T, Choo J, Music E, Sereika S, Stark S, Sevick MA. J Ren Nutr. 2006;15:281–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chang K-H, Liu S-Y, Chu H-H, Hsu J Y, Chen C, Lin T-Y, Chen C-Y, Huang P. Pervasive 2006: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Pervasive Computing. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. LNCS vol. 3968, pp. 366–82.Google Scholar
  23. Cheng J, Amft O, Lukowicz P. Pervasive 2010: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Pervasive Computing. Springer; 2010. LNCS vol. 6030, pp. 319–336.Google Scholar
  24. Chi P-Y, Chen J-H, Chu H-H, Lo J-L. Persuasive 2008: Proceedings Of The 3rd International Conference On Persuasive Technology. Springer; 2008. LNCS vol. 5033, pp. 116–27.Google Scholar
  25. Chiu M, Chang S, Chang Y, Chu H, Chen C, Hsiao F, Ko J. Ubicomp 2009: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing; 2009. pp. 185–94.Google Scholar
  26. Danbolt C, Hult P, Grahn LT, Ask P. Dysphagia. 1999;14:191–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Castro JM. J Nutr. 2004;134:104–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. DeBelie N, Sivertsvik M, DeBaerdemaeker J. J Sound Vib. 2003;266:625–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dellandrea E, Makris P, Boiron M, Vincent N. EURASIP 2003: Proceedings of the 4th Conference focused on Video/Image Processing and Multimedia Communications; 2003;2:619–24.Google Scholar
  30. Epstein LH, Temple JL, Roemmich JN, Bouton ME. Psychol Rev. 2009;116:384–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:653–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Firmin H, Reilly S, Fourcin A. Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, University College London (UCL); 1997. vol. 10.Google Scholar
  33. Fischer ARH, Jong AEID, Asselt EDV, Jonge RD, Frewer LJ, Nauta MJ. Risk Anal. 2007;27:1065–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ford AL, Bergh C, Södersten P, Sabin MA, Hollinghurst S, Hunt LP, Shield JPH. Br Med J. 2010;340:b5388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gualdi-Russo E, Toselli S. Homo. 2002;53:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Häggman-Henrikson B, Eriksson P-O. J Dent Res. 2004;83:864–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hauptmann A, Gao J, Yan R, Qi Y, Yang J, Wactlar H. IEEE Perv Comput. 2004;3:15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hiiemae KM, Palmer JB, Medicis SW, Hegener J, Jackson BS, Lieberman DE. Arch Oral Biol. 2002;47:11–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hill RJ, Davies PS. Br J Nutr. 2001;85:415–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Honma M, Okada A, Nomura S, Inoue M, Yamada Y. J Oral Biosci. 2007;49:180–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jequier E, Tappy L. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:451–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Juels A, Rivest RL, Szydlo, M. CCS 2003: Proceedings of the 10th ACM conference on Computer and communications security, ACM; 2003; pp. 103–11.Google Scholar
  43. Junker H, Amft O, Lukowicz P, Tröster, G. Pattern Recogn. 2008;41:2010–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kissileff HR, Guss JL. Appetite. 2001;36:70–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kikunaga S, Tin T, Ishibashi G, Wang D-H, Kira S. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2007;53:109–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Korioth TW, Waldron TW, Versluis A, Schulte JK. J Biomech. 1997;30:631–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kranz M, Schmidt A, Maldonado A, Rusu RB, Beetz M, Hörnler B, Rigoll G. TEI 2007: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Tangible and embedded interaction, ACM press; 2007. pp. 213–14.Google Scholar
  48. Lambert N, Plumb J, Looise B, Johnson IT, Harvey I, Wheeler C, Robinson M, Rolfe P. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005;18:243–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Logan B, Healey J, Philipose M, Tapia EM, Intille S. UbiComp 2007: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Springer, LNCS. 2007;4717: 483–500.Google Scholar
  50. Martin CK, Han H, Coulon SM, Allen HR, Champagne CM, Anton SD. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:446–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Negishi Y, Kawaguchi N. UCS 2007: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ubiquitous Computing Systems, Springer, LNCS. 2007;4836:72–85.Google Scholar
  52. Ngo J, Engelen A, Molag M, Roesle J, García-Segovia P, Serra-Majem L. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(Suppl 2):S102–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oenema A, Brug J. Prev Med. 2003;36:429–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ono T, Hori K, Masuda Y, Hayashi T. Sensors. 2010;10:176–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Paineau DL, Beaufils F, Boulier A, Cassuto D-A, Chwalow J, Combris P, Couet C, Jouret B, Lafay L, Laville M, Mahe S, Ricour C, Romon M, Simon C, Tauber M, Valensi P, Chapalain V, Zourabichvili O, Bornet F. Arch Pediat Adol Med. 2008;162:34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Patterson D, Fox D, Kautz H, Philipose M. ISWC 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, IEEE Press. pp. 44–51.Google Scholar
  57. Palmer JB, Rudin NJ, Lara G, Crompton AW. Dysphagia. 1992;7:187–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Probst YC, Agnoli KD, Batterham M, Tapsell L. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009;22:21–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rypkema G, Adang E, Dicke H, Naber T, de Swart B, Disselhorst L, Golüke-Willemse G, Rikkert MO. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8:122–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Sandström B. Public Health Nutr. 2001;4:293–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Sazonov E, Schuckers S, Lopez-Meyer P, Makeyev O, Sazonova N, Melanson EL, Neuman M. Physiol Meas. 2008;29:525–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schoeller DA. Metabolism. 1995;44:18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shroff G, Smailagic A, Siewiorek D. ISWC 2008: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computing, IEEE; 2008. pp. 119–20.Google Scholar
  64. Siek KA, Connelly KH, Rogers Y, Rohwer P, Lambert D, Welch J. PHC 2006: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, ICST, IEEE digital library; 2006. pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  65. Stellar E, Shrager EE. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:973–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Tenorth M, Bandouch J, Beetz M. THEMIS 2009: Proceedings of the IEEE Int’l Workshop on Tracking Humans for the Evaluation of their Motion in Image Sequences; 2009.Google Scholar
  67. Valensi P, Cosson E. Diabetes Metab. 2006;32(Spec No2):2S37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Welch JL, Siek KA, Connelly KH, Astroth KS, McManus MS, Scott L, Heo S, Kraus MA. Patient Educ Couns; 2009. Article in press.Google Scholar
  69. Westerterp KR, Goris AHC. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002;5:489–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Wouters L, ten Hoor F. Physiol Behav. 1990;48:831–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Willett WC. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:171S–4S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Willett WC. Nutritional Epidemiology, Oxford University Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  73. Wing RR, Phelan S. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:222S–5S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Wieskotten S, Heinke S, Wabel P, Moissl U, Becker J, Pirlich M, Keymling M, Isermann R. Physiol Meas. 2008;29:639–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Witschi JC. In: Willett W, editor. Nutritional Epidemiology, Oxford University Press;1990. pp. 52–68.Google Scholar
  76. Wylie-Rosett J, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Elmer P. Patient Educ Couns. 1990;15:217–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yamaguchi K, Yamaguchi T, Odaka T, Saisho H. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:510–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yon BA, Johnson RK, Harvey-Berino J, Gold BC. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:1256–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ACTLab, Signal Processing Systems, Faculty of Electrical EngineeringEindhoven University of TechnologyMB EindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations