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The Role of Apolipoprotein APO A-IV in Eating Behavior and Diet

  • Giuseppe Derosa
  • Sibilla Anna Teresa Salvadeo
Chapter

Abstract

Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is a glycoprotein secreted together with triglyceride (Tg)-rich lipoproteins by the small intestine. In rodents, apo A-IV is secreted both in the intestine and the liver, the former being the major organ responsible for circulating apo A-IV. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is stimulated by fat absorption, and attenuated by intravenous leptin infusion. Intestinal apo A-IV secretion is also influenced by members of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Recently, apo A-IV has been found in hypothalamus, where it is regulated by food deprivation and lipid feeding. Several hormones, as long as nutritional status and circadian rhythms, appear to regulate apo A-IV synthesis and secretion both in the gastroenteric tract and in the hypothalamus. Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) significantly increases apo A-IV mRNA levels. A role of apo A-IV in the regulation of food intake has been suggested and many evidences sustain this hypothesis. Many studies have provided information about the effects of a fat-rich diet or high-carbohydrates diet on apo A-IV concentration in animals. Inhibition of food intake by apo A-IV is mediated centrally and apo A-IV appears to be involved both in short and long-term regulation of food assumption. The main purpose of this chapter is to explain the role of apo A-IV in food intake regulation and illustrate future perspectives and unsolved problems in this field. Relation between apo A-IV and obesity, other metabolic diseases, pharmacological treatments for obesity, and dyslipidemia will be discussed too.

Keywords

Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Reduce Food Intake Cholesterol Acyl Transferase Anorexic Effect Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

TC

Total cholesterol

HDL

High-density lipoproteins

LDL

Low-density lipoproteins

Tg

Triglyceride; triglycerides

Apo A-IV

Apolipoprotein A-IV

PYY

Peptide Y

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

HNF-4

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4

PGC-1

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1

BMI

Body mass index

CCK

Cholecystokinin

LCAT

Cholesterol acyl transferase

OFLT

Oral fat load test

AUC

Area under curve

POMC

Pro-opiomelanocortin

ABCA 1

ATP binding cassette transporter 1

CETP

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

Notes

Acknowledgments:

The authors certify that have no affliation with, or financial involvement in any organization or entity with a direct financial intrest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Derosa
    • 1
  • Sibilla Anna Teresa Salvadeo
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine and TherapeuticsUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

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