Advertisement

Reinforcement and Food Hedonics: A Look at How Energy Deprivation Impacts Food Reward

  • Jameason D. Cameron
  • Éric Doucet
Chapter

Abstract

In a detailed analysis of the psychobiology of feeding behavior with particular attention to food reward, this chapter describes theories and data on reinforcement and taste perception. This chapter will also provide evidence for an explanation of what may account for the large variation in the individual response to a similar food stimulus, highlighting the role of peripheral feeding signals (e.g., the “hunger hormone” ghrelin or the adiposity-marker hormone leptin) and the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine. What is interesting is that when energy deprivation is prolonged not only does palatable food become more salient but items that would normally not be selected can also become attractive. The fact that this increased hedonic valence is similar for rodents and primates (including humans) is indicative of common (neuro)biological underpinnings. Although it will be argued that nutritional state – whether defined by acute or chronic energy deprivation – can impact the “liking” and “wanting” of a food stimulus, it will also be argued that humans also eat in the absence of energy needs due to simple Pavlovian learning. New evidence from studies on taste and olfaction are presented and it appears that, continuous with leptin’s role as a marker of energy reserves, when leptin levels are high (signaling adequate reserves) there is a corresponding decrease in sensitivity to taste and to olfactory stimuli. Merging together literature on the dopamine hypothesis of feeding and the incentive salience hypothesis, this chapter will also describe the current views of how the neurotransmitter dopamine impacts the motivational component of food reward. The pleasure/palatability component of food reward will also be described in a comprehensive format at the behavioral and neurophysiological level. A question that remains to be answered is the extent to which homeostatic components (nutritional need-states) can impact the quality of orosensory reward, thereby enhancing food hedonics and ultimately compromising appetite control.

Keywords

Ventral Tegmental Area Food Reward Food Reinforcement Palatable Food Sweet Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Atkinson RL. Fed Proc. 1987;46:178–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baylis LL, Rolls ET, Baylis GC. Neuroscience. 1995;64:801–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berridge KC. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1996;20:1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berridge KC, Robinson TE. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998;28:309–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berridge KC, Robinson TE, Aldridge JW. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009;9:65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berthoud HR. Physiol Behav. 2007;91:486–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertino M, Beauchamp GK, Engelman K. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:R59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bina KG, Cincotta AH. Neuroendocrinology. 2000;71:68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birch LL, Deysher M. Appetite. 1986;7:323–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blum K, Braverman ER, Wood RC, Gill J, Li C, Chen TJ, Taub M, Montgomery AR, Sheridan PJ, Cull JG. Pharmacogenetics. 1996;6:297–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blundell JE, Stubbs RJ, Golding C, Croden F, Alam R, Whybrow S, Le Noury J, Lawton CL. Physiol Behav. 2005;86:614–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bohlender J, Rauh M, Zenk J, Groschl M. J Endocrinol. 2003;178:217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Booth DA, Mather P, Fuller J. Appetite. 1982;3:163–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borod J. The neuropsychology of emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  15. Cabanac M. Science. 1971;173:1103–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cameron J, Doucet E. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32:177–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cameron JD, Goldfield GS, Cyr MJ, Doucet E. Physiol Behav. 2008;94:474–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr KD. Physiol Behav. 2007;91:459–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr KD, Wolinsky TD. Brain Res. 1993;607:141–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chelikani PK, Haver AC, Reidelberger RD. Peptides. 2006;27:3193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cincotta AH, Meier AH. Diabetes Care. 1996;19:667–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis C, Fox J. Appetite. 2008;50:43–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Castro JM. Nutrition. 2000;16:800–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Leon J, Diaz FJ, Josiassen RC, Cooper TB, Simpson GM. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27:22–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drewnowski A, Krahn DD, Demitrack MA, Nairn K, Gosnell BA. Physiol Behav. 1992;51:371–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Epstein LH, Bulik CM, Perkins KA, Caggiula AR, Rodefer J. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991;38:715–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Epstein LH, Jaroni JL, Paluch RA, Leddy JJ, Vahue HE, Hawk L, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Lerman C. Obes Res. 2002;10:1232–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Epstein LH, Wright SM, Paluch RA, Leddy J, Hawk LW, Jr, Jaroni JL, Saad FG, Crystal-Mansour S, Lerman C. Physiol Behav. 2004a;81:511–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein LH, Wright SM, Paluch RA, Leddy JJ, Hawk LW, Jr, Jaroni JL, Saad FG, Crystal-Mansour S, Shields PG, Lerman C. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004b;80:82–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Epstein LH, Leddy JJ, Temple JL, Faith MS. Psychol Bull. 2007a;133:884–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Epstein LH, Temple JL, Neaderhiser BJ, Salis RJ, Erbe RW, Leddy JJ. Behav Neurosci. 2007b;121:877–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fetissov SO, Meguid MM, Sato T, Zhang LH. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R905–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Figlewicz DP. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R882–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Finlayson G, King N, Blundell JE. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007;31:987–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Finlayson G, King N, Blundell J. Appetite. 2008;50:120–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Finlayson G, Bryant E, Blundell JE, King NA. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:62–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fuke S, Suo S, Takahashi N, Koike H, Sasagawa N, Ishiura S. Pharmacogenomics J. 2001;1:152–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fulton S, Woodside B, Shizgal P. Science. 2000;287:125–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldfield GS, Lorello C, Doucet E. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:308–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Grill HJ, Berridge KC. Taste reactivity as a measure of the neural control of palatability. In: Sprague JM, Epstein LH, editors. Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology. Orlando, FL: Academic Press; 1985. pp. 1–61.Google Scholar
  41. Halatchev IG, Cone RD. Cell Metab. 2005;1:159–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hauge XY, Grandy DK, Eubanks JH, Evans GA, Civelli O, Litt M. Genomics. 1991;10:527–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heath RG. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1972;154:3–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heinz A, Goldman D, Jones DW, Palmour R, Hommer D, Gorey JG, Lee KS, Linnoila M, Weinberger DR. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;22:133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoebel BG. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1969;157:758–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hommel JD, Trinko R, Sears RM, Georgescu D, Liu ZW, Gao XB, Thurmon JJ, Marinelli M, DiLeone RJ. Neuron. 2006;51:801–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson J, Vickers Z. Appetite. 1993;21:25–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Julliard AK, Chaput MA, Apelbaum A, Aime P, Mahfouz M, Duchamp-Viret P. Behav Brain Res. 2007;183:123–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kandel E, Schwartz JH, Jessell M, Jessell TM. Principals of neural science. Appleton and Lange; East Norwalk, Connecticut, U.S.A. 2000.Google Scholar
  50. Karhunen LJ, Lappalainen RI, Haffner SM, Valve RH, Tuorila H, Miettinen H, Uusitupa MI. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:819–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kringelbach ML. Neuroscience. 2004;126:807–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Levine AS, Atkinson RL. Fed Proc. 1987;46:159–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Malik S, McGlone F, Bedrossian D, Dagher A. Cell Metab. 2008;7:400–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Missale C, Nash SR, Robinson SW, Jaber M, Caron MG. Physiol Rev. 1998;78:189–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Naleid AM, Grace MK, Cummings DE, Levine AS. Peptides. 2005;26:2274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ninomiya Y, Shigemura N, Yasumatsu K, Ohta R, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Lindemann B. Vitam Horm. 2002;64:221–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Noble EP, Blum K, Ritchie T, Montgomery A, Sheridan PJ. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48:648–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Noble EP, Noble RE, Ritchie T, Syndulko K, Bohlman MC, Noble LA, Zhang Y, Sparkes RS, Grandy DK. Int J Eat Disord. 1994;15:205–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Olds J. Drives and reinforcements: Behavioral studies of hypothalamic functions. New York: Raven Press; 1977.Google Scholar
  60. Orosco M, Gerozissis K, Rouch C, Meile MJ, Nicolaidis S. Obes Res. 1995;3 Suppl 5:655S–65S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Pecina S, Berridge KC. J Neurosci. 2005;25:11777–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Perez C, Sclafani A. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:R179–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pohjalainen T, Rinne JO, Nagren K, Lehikoinen P, Anttila K, Syvalahti EK, Hietala J. Mol Psychiatry. 1998;3:256–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pomerleau M, Imbeault P, Parker T, Doucet E. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1230–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Portenoy RK, Jarden JO, Sidtis JJ, Lipton RB, Foley KM, Rottenberg DA. Pain. 1986;27:277–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ravussin E, Kozak L. Energy homeostasis. In: Hofbauer K, Keller U, Boss O, editors. Pharmacotherapy of obesity–options and alternatives.CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL; 2004. pp. 488.Google Scholar
  67. Raynaud E, Brun JF, Perez-Martin A, Sagnes C, Boularan AM, Fedou C, Mercier J. Clin Sci (Lond). 1999;96:343–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Raynor HA, Epstein LH. Appetite. 2003;40:15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rolls ET. The brain and reward. Pergamon Press: Oxford; 1975.Google Scholar
  70. Rolls ET. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007;66:96–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rolls ET, Murzi E, Yaxley S, Thorpe SJ, Simpson SJ. Brain Res. 1986;368:79–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rolls ET, Scott TR, Sienkiewicz ZJ, Yaxley S. J Physiol. 1988;397:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rolls ET, Sienkiewicz ZJ, Yaxley S. Eur J Neurosci. 1989;1:53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rolls ET, Yaxley S, Sienkiewicz ZJ. J Neurophysiol. 1990;64:1055–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Saelens BE, Epstein LH. Appetite. 1996;27:41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Salamone JD, Correa M. Behav Brain Res. 2002;137:3–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sibilia V, Lattuada N, Rapetti D, Pagani F, Vincenza D, Bulgarelli I, Locatelli V, Guidobono F, Netti C. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:497–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Siep N, Roefs A, Roebroeck A, Havermans R, Bonte ML, Jansen A. Behav Brain Res. 2009;198:149–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Spiegel TA, Shrager EE, Stellar E. Appetite. 1989;13:45–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steiner JE, Glaser D, Hawilo ME, Berridge KC. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001;25:53–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Temple JL, Legierski CM, Giacomelli AM, Salvy SJ, Epstein LH. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1121–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Thiele TE, Van Dijk G, Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Burn P, Woods SC, Bernstein IL, Seeley RJ. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:R726–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Van Itallie TB, Beaudoin R, Mayer J. J Clin Nutr. 1953;1:208–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Fowler JS. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2002;6:601–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Logan J, Pappas NR, Wong CT, Zhu W, Netusil N, Fowler JS. Lancet. 2001;357:354–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wise RA. Behav Brain Sci. 1982;5:39–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wise RA, Spindler J, deWit H, Gerberg GJ. Science. 1978;201:262–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Woods SC. Psychol Rev. 1991;98:488–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yaxley S, Rolls ET, Sienkiewicz ZJ. Physiol Behav. 1988;42:223–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yeomans MR, Gray RW. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2002;26:713–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yeomans MR, Gray RW, Conyers TH. Physiol Behav. 1998;64:501–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioral and Metabolic Research Unit, School of Human KineticsUniversity of OttawaOntarioCanada

Personalised recommendations