Dietary Choline for Brain Development

  • Amy R. Johnson
  • Steven H. Zeisel


Choline, or its metabolites, is required for maintaining the structural integrity and signaling function of cell membranes, for providing a pool of methyl-groups available for the methylation of biological molecules, and for cholinergic neurotransmission. This nutrient is also necessary for the export of lipids from the liver and for normal muscle cell function. Choline can be synthesized de novo in the liver, but this pathway alone does not meet human requirements for this nutrient and, therefore, choline must be derived from the diet. Symptoms of choline deficiency in humans include fat accumulation in the liver as well as liver and muscle cell damage. The developing fetus has a high demand for choline that is met by supply from the mother across the placenta. The amount of choline available to the fetus during pregnancy can have significant effects on its brain development; women with the lowest choline intake during pregnancy are more likely to have babies with neural tube defects. Animals born to mothers who were perinatally supplemented with choline show enhanced memory function, which persists throughout life without further dietary choline supplementation. In rodents, maternal dietary choline during pregnancy influences proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells in fetal hippocampus. These effects of choline may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms.


Neuronal Precursor Cell MeCP2 Gene Plasma Homocysteine Concentration Choline Deficiency Muscle Cell Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.









Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein


Adequate Intake


Upper Tolerable Limit




Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase


Choline Dehydrogenase


Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase




Betaine:Homocysteine Methyltransferase


Methionine Synthase


Cytidine Diphosphocholine


Long-Term Potential


Embryonic Day


Postnatal Day


Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism




Choline Acetyltransferase


Transforming Growth Factor-β


Deleted in Colorectal Cancer


Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase


cAMP-Response Element-Binding Protein


Nerve Growth Factor


Histone 3

MeCP1, 2

Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 1, 2

MBD 1–4

Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain 1–4



Much of the work discussed in this chapter was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (USA) (DK55865, DK56350, AG009525).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutrition Research InstituteUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillKannapolisUSA

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