Food Addiction: Analysis With an Animal Model of Sugar Bingeing

  • Nicole M. Avena
  • Miriam E. Bocarsly
  • Bartley G. Hoebel


“Food addiction” has been postulated as one cause for the rise in obesity and overweight in the US. However, while it has been considered a real condition among many individuals suffering from eating disorders and obesity, food addiction has only recently been seriously addressed by the scientific community. This chapter reviews the theory of food addiction and its possible evolutionary origins, and presents data from laboratory animal research and clinical studies that show addictive-like behaviors can result under certain feeding conditions, namely, in response to binge-eating sugar. Drawing on the drug abuse literature, behaviors such as bingeing, withdrawal, and craving during abstinence have been demonstrated in rats that are bingeing on sugar. Studies of the brain show neurochemical changes in sugar-bingeing rats that are similar to those observed in response to drugs of abuse. Imaging data reveal structural and functional brain changes in individuals who have pathological feeding behaviors (e.g., obesity, bulimia) that are also consistent with an addictive-like state. These findings have given the concept of food addiction a scientific basis, and this area of research may lead to new and innovative methods through which to treat individuals who have maladaptive relationships with food.


Eating Disorder Binge Eating Bulimia Nervosa Sweet Taste Palatable Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Binge-eating disorder




Dopamine type 1 receptor


Dopamine type 2 receptor


Dopamine type 3 receptor


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Nucleus accumbens



We would like to acknowledge the support of USPHS grants DK-79793 (fellowship to NMA) and AA-12882 (BGH). We thank Aimee Chen and John Tang for their assistance in preparing this chapter.


  1. Alburges ME, Narang N, Wamsley JK. Alterations in the dopaminergic receptor system after chronic administration of cocaine. Synapse 1993;14(4):314–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison S, Timmerman GM. Anatomy of a binge: food environment and characteristics of nonpurge binge episodes. Eat Behav. 2007;8(1):31–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(3):381–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antelman SM, Caggiula AR. Oscillation follows drug sensitization: implications. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1996;10(1):101–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aravich PF, Rieg TS, Lauterio TJ, Doerries LE. Beta-endorphin and dynorphin abnormalities in rats subjected to exercise and restricted feeding: relationship to anorexia nervosa? Brain Res. 1993;622(1–2):1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Amphetamine-sensitized rats show sugar-induced hyperactivity (cross-sensitization) and sugar hyperphagia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003a;74(3):635–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avena NM, Hoebel BG. A diet promoting sugar dependency causes behavioral cross-sensitization to a low dose of amphetamine. Neuroscience. 2003b;122(1):17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avena NM, Carrillo CA, Needham L, Leibowitz SF, Hoebel BG. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol. Alcohol. 2004;34(2–3):203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Avena NM, Long KA, Hoebel BG. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced responding for sugar after abstinence: evidence of a sugar deprivation effect. Physiol Behav. 2005;84(3):359–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avena NM, Rada P, Moise N, Hoebel BG. Sucrose sham feeding on a binge schedule releases accumbens dopamine repeatedly and eliminates the acetylcholine satiety response. Neurosci. 2006;139(3):813–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Avena NM, Bocarsly ME, Rada P, Kim A, Hoebel BG. After daily bingeing on a sucrose solution, food deprivation induces anxiety and accumbens dopamine/acetylcholine imbalance. Physiol Behav. 2008a;94(3):309–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008b;32(1):20–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Avena NM, Rada P, Bocarsly ME, Hoebel BG. Binge eating as a form of addiction: evidence from an animal model of sugar addiction. Binge eating: psychological factors, symptoms and treatment. In: Chambers N, editor. New York: Nova Science; 2009a. p. 95–123.Google Scholar
  15. Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior. J Nutr. 2009b;139(3):623–8.Google Scholar
  16. Bailey A, Gianotti R, Ho A, Kreek MJ. Persistent upregulation of mu-opioid, but not adenosine, receptors in brains of long-term withdrawn escalating dose “binge” cocaine-treated rats. Synapse 2005;57(3):160–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bassareo V, Di Chiara G. Differential influence of associative and nonassociative learning mechanisms on the responsiveness of prefrontal and accumbal dopamine transmission to food stimuli in rats fed ad libitum. J Neurosci. 1997;17(2):851–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bello NT, Lucas LR, Hajnal A. Repeated sucrose access influences dopamine D2 receptor density in the striatum. Neuroreport. 2002;13(12):1575–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bello NT, Sweigart KL, Lakoski JM, Norgren R, Hajnal A. Restricted feeding with scheduled sucrose access results in an upregulation of the rat dopamine transporter. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284(5):R1260–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Berner LA, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Bingeing, self-restriction, and increased body weight in rats with limited access to a sweet-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16(9):1998–2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boggiano MM, Chandler PC, Viana JB, Oswald KD, Maldonado CR, Wauford PK. Combined dieting and stress evoke exaggerated responses to opioids in binge-eating rats. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119(5):1207–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carroll ME, Anderson MM, Morgan AD. Regulation of intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;190(3):331–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciccocioppo R, Angeletti S, Weiss F. Long-lasting resistance to extinction of response reinstatement induced by ethanol-related stimuli: role of genetic ethanol preference. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(10):1414–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Colantuoni C, Schwenker J, McCarthy J, Rada P, Ladenheim B, Cadet JL, Schwartz GJ, Moran TH, Hoebel BG. Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Neuroreport. 2001;12(16):3549–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Colantuoni C, Rada P, McCarthy J, Patten C, Avena NM, Chadeayne A, Hoebel BG. Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence. Obes Res. 2002;10(6):478–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Comer SD, Lac ST, Wyvell CL, Carroll ME. Combined effects of buprenorphine and a nondrug alternative reinforcer on i.v. cocaine self-administration in rats maintained under FR schedules. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1996;125(4):355–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Corwin RL. Bingeing rats: a model of intermittent excessive behavior? Appetite. 2006;46(1):11–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cottone P, Sabino V, Steardo L, Zorrilla EP. Opioid-dependent anticipatory negative contrast and binge-like eating in rats with limited access to highly preferred food. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33(3):524–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cowan J, Devine C. Food, eating, and weight concerns of men in recovery from substance addiction. Appetite. 2008;50(1):33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis C, Claridge G. The eating disorders as addiction: a psychobiological perspective. Addict Behav. 1998;23(4):463–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis CA, Levitan RD, Reid C, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Patte KA, King N, Curtis C, Kennedy JL. Dopamine for “wanting” and opioids for “liking”: a comparison of obese adults with and without binge eating. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009;17(6):1220–5.Google Scholar
  32. Di Chiara G, Imperato A. Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988;85(14):5274–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ellgren M, Spano SM, Hurd YL. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007; 32(3):607–15. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(1):39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Foley KA, Fudge MA, Kavaliers M, Ossenkopp KP. Quinpirole-induced behavioral sensitization is enhanced by prior scheduled exposure to sucrose: a multi-variable examination of locomotor activity. Behav Brain Res. 2006;167(1):49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galanti K, Gluck ME, Geliebter A. Test meal intake in obese binge eaters in relation to impulsivity and compulsivity. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(8):727–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galic MA, Persinger MA. Voluminous sucrose consumption in female rats: increased “nippiness” during periods of sucrose removal and possible oestrus periodicity. Psychol Rep. 2002;90(1):58–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Appetite 2009;52(2):430–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Georges F, Stinus L, Bloch B, Le Moine C. Chronic morphine exposure and spontaneous withdrawal are associated with modifications of dopamine receptor and neuropeptide gene expression in the rat striatum. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11(2):481–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gillman MA, Lichtigfeld FJ. The opioids, dopamine, cholecystokinin, and eating disorders. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1986;9(1):91–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goeders NE, Kuhar MJ. Chronic cocaine administration induces opposite changes in dopamine receptors in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Alcohol Drug Res. 1987;7(4):207–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gosnell BA. Sucrose intake enhances behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine. Brain Res. 2005;1031(2):194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grimm JW, Shaham Y, Hope BT. Effect of cocaine and sucrose withdrawal period on extinction behavior, cue-induced reinstatement, and protein levels of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase in limbic and cortical areas in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2002;13(5–6):379–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grimm JW, Fyall AM, Osincup DP. Incubation of sucrose craving: effects of reduced training and sucrose pre-loading. Physiol Behav. 2005;84(1):73–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grucza RA, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in a community sample. Compr Psychiatry. 2007;48(2):124–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guertin TL, Conger AJ. Mood and forbidden foods’ influence on perceptions of binge eating. Addict Behav. 1999;24(2):175–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hadigan CM, Kissileff HR, Walsh BT. Patterns of food selection during meals in women with bulimia. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50(4):759–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hajnal A, Norgren R. Repeated access to sucrose augments dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. Neuroreport. 2002;13(17):2213–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Henningfield JE, Clayton R, Pollin W. Involvement of tobacco in alcoholism and illicit drug use. Br J Addict. 1990;85(2):279–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heubner H. Endorphins, eating disorders and other addictive behaviors. New York: W. W. Norton; 1993.Google Scholar
  51. Holderness CC, Brooks-Gunn J, Warren MP. Co-morbidity of eating disorders and substance abuse review of the literature. Int J Eat Disord. 1994;16(1):1–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hubbell CL, Mankes RF, Reid LD. A small dose of morphine leads rats to drink more alcohol and achieve higher blood alcohol concentrations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17(5):1040–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(3):348–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ifland JR, Preuss HG, Marcus MT, Rourke KM, Taylor WC, Burau K, Jacobs WS, Kadish W, Manso G. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72(5):518–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kales EF. Macronutrient analysis of binge eating in bulimia. Physiol Behav. 1990;48(6):837–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kelley AE, Will MJ, Steininger TL, Zhang M, Haber SN. Restricted daily consumption of a highly palatable food (chocolate Ensure(R)) alters striatal enkephalin gene expression. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18(9):2592–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Klein DA, Boudreau GS, Devlin MJ, Walsh BT. Artificial sweetener use among individuals with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2006;39(4):341–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Neurobiology of addiction. San Diego: Academic; 2005.Google Scholar
  59. Le Magnen J. A role for opiates in food reward and food addiction. Taste, experience, and feeding. In: Capaldi PT, editor. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1990. p. 241–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed SH. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward. PLoS ONE 2007;2:e698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liguori A, Hughes JR, Goldberg K, Callas P. Subjective effects of oral caffeine in formerly cocaine-dependent humans. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1997;49(1):17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lu L, Grimm JW, Hope BT, Shaham Y. Incubation of cocaine craving after withdrawal: a review of preclinical data. Neuropharmacology 2004;47(Suppl 1):214–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marrazzi MA, Luby ED. An auto-addiction opioid model of chronic anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 1986;5(2):191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marrazzi MA, Luby ED. The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa: an auto-addiction? The brain as an endocrine organ. In: Cohen M, Foa P, editors. New York: Springer; 1990.p. 46–95.Google Scholar
  65. Martin WR, Wikler A, Eades CG, Pescor FT. Tolerance to and physical dependence on morphine in rats. Psychopharmacologia 1963;65:247–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mercer ME, Holder MD. Food cravings, endogenous opioid peptides, and food intake: a review. Appetite 1997;29(3):325–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore RJ, Vinsant SL, Nader MA, Porrino LJ, Friedman DP. Effect of cocaine self-administration on dopamine D2 receptors in rhesus monkeys. Synapse 1998;30(1):88–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nichols ML, Hubbell CL, Kalsher MJ, Reid LD. Morphine increases intake of beer among rats. Alcohol 1991;8(4):237–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Page RM, Brewster A. Depiction of food as having drug-like properties in televised food advertisements directed at children: portrayals as pleasure enhancing and addictive. J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23(3):150–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pelchat ML, Johnson A, Chan R, Valdez J, Ragland JD. Images of desire: food-craving activation during fMRI. Neuroimage 2004;23(4):1486–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rada PV, Mark GP, Taylor KM, Hoebel BG. Morphine and naloxone, i.p. or locally, affect extracellular acetylcholine in the accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996;53(4):809–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rada P, Jensen K, Hoebel BG. Effects of nicotine and mecamylamine-induced withdrawal on extracellular dopamine and acetylcholine in the rat nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;157(1):105–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rada P, Johnson DF, Lewis MJ, Hoebel BG. In alcohol-treated rats, naloxone decreases extracellular dopamine and increases acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens: evidence of opioid withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;79(4):599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience 2005;134(3):737–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ramacciotti CE, Coli E, Paoli R, Gabriellini G, Schulte F, Castrogiovanni S, Dell’;Osso L, Garfinkel PE. The relationship between binge eating disorder and non-purging bulimia nervosa. Eat Weight Disord. 2005;10(1):8–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Riva G, Bacchetta M, Cesa G, Conti S, Castelnuovo G, Mantovani F, Molinari E. Is severe obesity a form of addiction? Rationale, clinical approach, and controlled clinical trial. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9(4):457–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robinson TE, Becker JB. Enduring changes in brain and behavior produced by chronic amphetamine administration: a review and evaluation of animal models of amphetamine psychosis. Brain Res. 1986;396(2):157–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993;18(3):247–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rolls ET. Brain mechanisms underlying flavour and appetite. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006;361(1471):1123–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sinclair JD, Senter RJ. Development of an alcohol-deprivation effect in rats. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1968;29(4):863–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Spangler R, Goddard NL, Avena NM, Hoebel BG, Leibowitz SF. Elevated D3 dopamine receptor mRNA in dopaminergic and dopaminoceptive regions of the rat brain in response to morphine. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;111(1–2):74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Spangler R, Wittkowski KM, Goddard NL, Avena NM, Hoebel BG, Leibowitz SF. Opiate-like effects of sugar on gene expression in reward areas of the rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;124(2):134–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stephens DW, Kerr B, Fernandez-Juricic E. Impulsiveness without discounting: the ecological rationality hypothesis. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271(1556):2459–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Cohen ML, Yanovski SZ, Cox C, Theim KR, Keil M, Reynolds JC, Yanovski JA. A prospective study of psychological predictors of body fat gain among children at high risk for adult obesity. Pediatrics. 2006;117(4):1203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Teegarden SL, Bale TL. Decreases in dietary preference produce increased emotionality and risk for dietary relapse. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(9):1021–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Turchan J, Lason W, Budziszewska B, Przewlocka B. Effects of single and repeated morphine administration on the prodynorphin, proenkephalin and dopamine D2 receptor gene expression in the mouse brain. Neuropeptides. 1997;31(1):24–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Uhl GR, Ryan JP, Schwartz JP. Morphine alters preproenkephalin gene expression. Brain Res. 1988;459(2):391–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Unterwald EM, Ho A, Rubenfeld JM, Kreek MJ. Time course of the development of behavioral sensitization and dopamine receptor up-regulation during binge cocaine administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994;270(3):1387–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Unterwald EM, Kreek MJ, Cuntapay M. The frequency of cocaine administration impacts cocaine-induced receptor alterations. Brain Res. 2001;900(1):103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vigano D, Rubino T, Di Chiara G, Ascari I, Massi P, Parolaro D. Mu opioid receptor signaling in morphine sensitization. Neuroscience. 2003;117(4):921–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Volkow ND, Ding YS, Fowler JS, Wang GJ. Cocaine addiction: hypothesis derived from imaging studies with PET. J Addict Dis. 1996a;15(4):55–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Hitzemann R, Ding YS, Pappas N, Shea C, Piscani K. Decreases in dopamine receptors but not in dopamine transporters in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996b;20(9):1594–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Childress AR, Jayne M, Ma Y, Wong C. Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction. J Neurosci. 2006;26(24):6583–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Volpicelli JR, Ulm RR, Hopson N. Alcohol drinking in rats during and following morphine injections. Alcohol. 1991;8(4):289–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Logan J, Pappas NR, Wong CT, Zhu W, Netusil N, Fowler JS. Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet 2001;357(9253):354–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Telang F, Jayne M, Ma J, Rao M, Zhu W, Wong CT, Pappas NR, Geliebter A, Fowler JS. Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain. Neuroimage 2004a;21(4):1790–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Thanos PK, Fowler JS. Similarity between obesity and drug addiction as assessed by neurofunctional imaging: a concept review. J Addict Dis. 2004b;23(3):39–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang Y, Beydoun MA, Liang L, Caballero B, Kumanyika SK. Will all Americans become overweight or obese? estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16(10):2323–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Way EL, Loh HH, Shen FH. Simultaneous quantitative assessment of morphine tolerance and physical dependence. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1969;167(1):1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wideman CH, Nadzam GR, Murphy HM. Implications of an animal model of sugar addiction, withdrawal and relapse for human health. Nutr Neurosci. 2005;8(5–6):269–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zubieta JK, Gorelick DA, Stauffer R, Ravert HT, Dannals RF, Frost JJ. Increased mu opioid receptor binding detected by PET in cocaine-dependent men is associated with cocaine craving. Nat Med. 1996;2(11):1225–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole M. Avena
    • 1
    • 2
  • Miriam E. Bocarsly
  • Bartley G. Hoebel
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Program in NeurosciencePrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations