In view of the increasing numbers in overweight and obesity, insight in food intake regulation is necessary. Food intake is regulated by sensory, cognitive, post-ingestive, and post-absorptive processes. Food properties, such as energy density, macronutrient composition, volume, and form, influence the satiating capacity of a food. This chapter focuses on the role of food texture in food intake regulation. Texture is an essential part of the whole spectrum of sensory properties of a food. Several studies showed that liquid foods elicit weaker suppressive appetite responses and a weaker compensatory response in energy intake than solid or semisolid foods. The mechanisms underlying the effect of texture on satiety are not well understood. Beverages might engage thirst mechanisms and not hunger mechanisms. Food properties such as viscosity and texture could affect chewing, oro-gastric handling of foods, and absorption. Other factors that play a role are beliefs about the satiating capacity of a food, sensory specific satiety, eating rate, gastric emptying, and learned associations between texture and metabolic consequences. One of the mechanisms involved could be the oral sensory exposure time. A longer oral exposure time gives the sensory receptors in the oral cavity more time to respond to the food. Liquid calories facilitate energy intake. This knowledge can be useful in both the overweight and underweight situation.
Gastric Emptying Apple Juice Macronutrient Composition Food Intake Regulation Oral Processing
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Glucagon-like peptide 1
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