Technical Appendix

  • John A. Maksem
  • Stanley J. Robboy
  • John W. Bishop
  • Isabelle Meiers
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 7)

The following comprises a technical disclosure of the reagents and methods used in preparing the cytology and cell block histology slides of endometrial brushings. The methods are based on cumulative experience with processing liquid-based cytology without specialized preparative instruments.

The reagents and methods disclosed herein have evolved over several years and are generally applicable to cytopathology. We have tested them with more than 125,000 cervicovaginal specimens, 10,000 endometrial specimens, and 25,000 nongynecological specimens, including brushings and fine-needle aspiration biopsies. The same methods may be applied to fluid cytology after the naturally occurring cell suspension has been concentrated to a cell button, decanted, and fixed.


Cell Block Liquid Circle Fluid Cytology Room Temperature Water Cell Button 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Maksem JA, Weidmann J. Specialized preparative devices are not needed for liquid-based, thin-layer cytology: an alternate manual method using a metastable alcoholic gel. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25: 262–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Maksem JA, Finnemore M, Belsheim BL, Roose EB, Makkapati SR, Eatwell L, Weidmann J. Manual method for liquid-based cytology: a demonstration using 1,000 gynecological cytologies collected directly to vial and prepared by a smear-slide technique. Diagn Cytopathol 2001;
25: 334–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Maksem JA, Bedrossian CW, Kurtycz D, Sewall S, Shalkham J, Dhanwada V, Lind H, Bibbo M, Weidmann J, Kane B, Shi Fu Y. Resolving ASCUS without recourse to HPV testing: manual reprocessing of residual automated liquid-based cytology (ALBC) material using manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC). Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(6): 434–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Maksem JA, Dhanwada V, Trueblood JE, Weidmann J, Kane B, Bolick DR, Bedrossian CW, Kurtycz DF, Stewart J III. Testing automated liquid-based cytology samples with a manual liquid-based cytology method using residual cell suspensions from 500 ThinPrep cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 391–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lee JM, Kelly D, Gravitt PE, Fansler Z, Maksem JA, Clark DP. Validation of a low-cost, liquid-based screening method for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195: 965–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Maksem
    • 1
  • Stanley J. Robboy
    • 2
  • John W. Bishop
    • 3
  • Isabelle Meiers
    • 4
  1. 1.Orlando HealthOrlando
  2. 2.Duke University Medical CenterDurham
  3. 3.University of California, DavisSacramento
  4. 4.University Hospital LewishamLondonEngland

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