Multiple Basins of Attraction

  • M. Henry H. Stevens
Part of the Use R! book series (USE R)


Historically, simple models may have helped to lull some ecologists into thinking either that (i) models are useless because they do not reflect the natural world, or (ii) the natural world is highly predictable.1 Here we investigate how simple models can create unpredictable outcomes, in models of Lotka–Volterra competition, resource competition, and intraguild predation. In all cases, we get totally different outcomes, or alternative stable states, depending on different, stochastic, initial conditions.


Attack Rate Nitrogen Level Resource Competition Intraguild Predation High Nutrient Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA

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