Squamous Cell Carcinoma
A major type of non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma was for many years the leading cell type in terms of frequency. Currently, it ranks second to adenocarcinoma but remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. As is the case with small cell cancers, squamous cell carcinomas are centrally located, near the hilum and prone to present with hemoptysis and/or early symptoms related to bronchial obstruction. Owing to their central location, squamous cell carcinomas are also accessible to the bronchoscope and are apt to be diagnosed early by means of biopsy and/or exfoliative and sputum cytology. Often achieving a large size and due to extensive necrosis, squamous cell carcinomas frequently cavitate, presenting as abscess-like masses, radiographically. Other types of carcinomas may also cavitate but to a lesser degree and frequency.