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Typical and Atypical Carcinoids

  • Shanda Blackmon
  • Richard S. Irwin
  • Armin Ernst
  • Philip T. Cagle
  • Timothy C. Allen
  • N. Paul Ohori
  • Elise R. Hoff
  • Dina R. Mody
  • Armando E. Fraire
Chapter

Abstract

Primarily occurring in the airways, carcinoids tumors may also arise peripherally within the lung. Their histopathologic hallmark is a growth pattern that suggests neuroendocrine differentiation (organoid, trabecular, insular, etc.). Two major variants of carcinoid tumors are recognized: typical and atypical. Some carcinoid tumors, particularly the ones that are peripherally located, may be clinically silent. Fever, cough, expectoration, chest pain, and hemoptysis occur in a substantial number of centrally located cases. The most common radiologic manifestation, seen in about 80–85% of cases, is evidence of bronchial obstruction, owing to the majority of these tumors occupying a central endobronchial location. Bronchial obstruction is revealed as atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis. Peripheral carcinoids, often the spindle cell variant, occur as solitary pulmonary nodules manifested as well-defined homogenous densities, usually up to 3 cm in diameter.

Keywords

Carcinoid Tumor Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Bronchial Obstruction Atypical Carcinoid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanda Blackmon
    • 1
  • Richard S. Irwin
    • 2
  • Armin Ernst
    • 3
  • Philip T. Cagle
    • 4
  • Timothy C. Allen
    • 5
  • N. Paul Ohori
    • 6
  • Elise R. Hoff
    • 7
  • Dina R. Mody
    • 4
  • Armando E. Fraire
    • 2
  1. 1.The Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.Harvard Medical School, The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  4. 4.Weill Medical College, The Methodist Hospital, Cornell UniversityHoustonUSA
  5. 5.The University of Texas Health Science Center at TylerTylerUSA
  6. 6.University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  7. 7.University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

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