More common in adults than in children, inflammatory tracheobronchial polyps represent uncommon but distinct non-neoplastic inflammatory lesions secondary to a variety of insults to the airways. These insults include aspiration of foreign bodies, mycobacterial infections, mechanical intubation, chronic smoke injury, and smoldering inflammatory disorders such as cystic fibrosis, bronchial asthma, and chronic tracheobronchitis. Most cases occurring in children are idiopathic. The lesion shown in Fig. 10.1 is solitary but some patients have multiple lesions. Complete collapse of the right lung may be the main chest radiographic findings in children. In children, air bronchograms may show abrupt cut of the right main bronchus unmasking the site of a polypoid-obstructing lesion. CT scan of chest may show volume loss and bronchiectatic changes with mucus plugging of dilated bronchi. Endoscopically, small single polyps may appear innocuous but some are susceptible to bleeding. Massive hemoptysis is an important complication requiring immediate intervention. Acute and chronic inflammation are the histopathologic hallmark of the lesion. Edema, capillary proliferation and squamous metaplasia of the surface epithelium are also seen. Overall, the appearance of these lesions is strikingly similar to granulation tissue. The cytopathology of these lesions is not known.