Advertisement

Autonomic Peer-to-Peer Systems: Incentive and Security Issues

  • Yu-Kwong Kwok
Chapter

Abstract

With voluntary users participating in an autonomic manner, peer-to-peer (P2P) systems have been proliferating in an unprecedented pace. Indeed, it is widely known that P2P traffic now constitutes over 60% of total Internet traffic. P2P systems are now used for file sharing, media streaming, and various other social networking applications. Furthermore, P2P systems are also extending their reach to the wireless realm. However, there are still two major system aspects that pose challenges to P2P systems’ designers and users: incentives and security. First and foremost, a P2P system, by its nature, is viable only if users contribute their resources to the community. Obviously, uniform and global altruistic behaviors cannot be expected for all users.

Some users will definitely try to take advantage of the altruism of other participants. If such “free-riding” phenomenon is too wide spread, then a system collapse will result because the input to the P2P community is smaller than the output. Thus, it is important to incorporate effective incentive mechanisms to deter selfish behaviors and encourage active contributions. On the other hand, security related issues such as privacy, anonymity, and authentication are also beyond doubt critical concerns of the participating users. Essentially, users do not want to sacrifice security to trade for service. Clearly security issues and incentives are closely related in that a low security or “untrustworthy” P2P community will not attract a large population of contributing users, and instead, might even tempt malicious users to consider the system as a potential point of attacks.

In this chapter, we survey and analyze the current state-of-the-art in tackling the incentive and security issues in P2P systems. We first give a brief account of P2P applications and their wired and wireless operating environments. We then survey and critique existing incentive techniques. This is followed by the analysis of contemporary P2P security algorithms.

The techniques that we survey will range from traditional optimization algorithms to game theoretic schemes. We provide some of our thoughts on open research issues, followed by a conclusion.

Keywords

Nash Equilibrium Distribute Hash Table Game State Upload Bandwidth Sybil Attack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    BitComet, http://www.bitcomet.com/, 2008.
  2. 2.
    BitTorrent, http://www.bittorrent.com/, 2008.
  3. 3.
    eDonkey2000, http://www.edonkey2000.com/, 2005 (defunct).
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    giFT Project, http://gift.sourceforge.net/, 2008.
  7. 7.
    Gnutella, http://gnutella.wego.com/, 2008.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    iMesh, http://www.imesh.com/, 2008.
  11. 11.
    Joost, http://www.joost.com/, 2008.
  12. 12.
    KaZaA, http://www.kazaa.com/, 2008.
  13. 13.
    Limewire, http://www.limewire.org/, 2008.
  14. 14.
    Napster, http://www.napster.com/, 2002 (bankruptcy).
  15. 15.
    PPLive, http://www.pplive.com/, 2008.
  16. 16.
    Skype, http://www.skype.com/, 2008.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Tribler, http://www.tribler.org/, 2008.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    World of Warcraft, http://www.worldofwarcraft.com/, 2008.
  21. 21.
    WinMX, http://winmx.com/, 2005
  22. 22.
    K. G. Anagnostakis and M. B. Greenwald, “Exchange-BasedIncentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer File Sharing,” Proc.24th Int’l Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 2004.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Androutsellis-Theotokis and D. Spinellis, “ASurvey of Peer-to-Peer Content Distribution Technologies,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 36, no. 4, Dec. 2004, pp. 335–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. U. Becker and M. Clement, “The Economic Rationale ofOffering Media Files in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 37thHawaii Int’l Conference on System Sciences, 2004.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Capkun, J.-P. Hubaux, and L. Buttyan, “Mobility HelpsPeer-to-Peer Security,” IEEE Transactions on MobileComputing, vol. 5, no. 1, Jan. 2006, pp. 43–51.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Cerri, A. Ghioni, S. Paraboschi, and S. Tiraboschi, “IDMapping Attacks in P2P Networks,” Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM2005, pp. 1785–1790.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Chen and R. S. Gray, “Simulating Non-Scanning Worms onPeer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 1st ACM Int’l Conf. ScalableInformation Systems, May 2006.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Christin, A. S. Weigend, and J. Chuang, “ContentAvailability, Pollution and Poisoning in File SharingPeer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. ACM EC 2005, June 2005, pp.68–77.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    I. Clarke, O. Sandberg, B. Wiley, and T. Hong, “Freenet: ADistributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System,” Proc. Workshop on Design Issues in Anonymous andUnobservability, July 2000.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. Cohen, “Incentives Build Robustness in BitTorrent,” Proc. Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, June 2003.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. B. Corman, S. Douglas, P. Schachte, and V. Teague, “A SecureEvent Agreement (SEA) Protocol for Peer-to-Peer Games,” Proc. 1st IEEE Int’l Conf. Availability, Reliability and Security(ARES 2006).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Danezis and R. Anderson, “The Economics of ResistingCensorship,” IEEE Security and Privacy, Jan./Feb. 2005,pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Daswani and A. Fisk, GUESS Protocol Specification,http://groups.yahoo.com/group/the_gdf/files/Proposals/GUESS/guess_01.txt.
  34. 34.
    N. Daswani and H. Garcia-Molina, “Pong-Cache Poisoning inGUESS,” Proc. ACM CCS 2004, Oct. 2004, pp. 98–109.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Feldman, C. Papadimitriou, J. Chuang, and I.Stoica, “Free-Riding and Whitewashing in Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. 2004 SIGCOMM Workshop on Practice and Theory ofIncentives in Networked Systems, Aug. 2004, pp. 228–235.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Feldman and J. Chuang, “Overcoming Free-Riding Behaviorin Peer-to-Peer Systems,” ACM SIGccom Exchanges, vol. 5,no. 4, July 2005, pp. 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Feldman, K. Lai, I. Stoica, and J. Chuang, “RobustIncentive Techniques for Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 5thACM conference on Electronic Commerce, pp. 102–111, May 2004.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Friedman, “Good Neighbors Can Make Good Fences: APeer-to-Peer User Security System,” IEEE Technology andSociety Magazine, Spring 2007, pp. 17–24.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. GauthierDickey, D. Zappala, V. Lo, and J. Marr, “Low-LatencyCheat-Proof Event Ordering for Peer-to-Peer Games,” Proc.Int’l Workshop Network and Operating Systems Support for DigitalAudio and Video (NOSSDAV), June 2004.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. Gupta, K. Birman, P. Linga, A. Demers, and R. Van Renesse,“Kelips: Building an Efficient and Stable P2P DHT ThroughIncreased Memory and Background Overhead,” Proc. 2nd Int’lWorkshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), 2003, pp. 81–86.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    R. Gupta and A. K. Somani, “A Pricing Strategy ForIncentivizing Selfish Nodes To Share Resources In Peer-to-Peer(P2P) Networks,” Proc. IEEE International Conference onNetworks, Nov. 2004.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. Hausheer, N. C. Liebau, A. Mauthe, R.Steinmetz, and B. Stiller, “ Token Based Accounting andDistributed Pricing to Introduce Market Mechanisms in aPeer-to-Peer File Sharing Scenario,” Proc. ThirdInternational Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, 2003.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Hausheer and B. Stiller, “Decentralized Auction-basedPricing with PeerMart,” Proc. 9th IFIP/IEEE InternationalSymposium on Integrated Network Management, May 2005.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Z. Jia, S. Tiange, H. Liansheng, and D. Yiqi, “A NewMicropayment Protocol Based on P2P Networks,” Proc. 2005IEEE Int’l Conference on e-Business Engineering, 2005.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Kabus and A. P. Buchmann, “Design of a Cheat-Resistant P2POnline Gaming System,” Proc. ACM DIMEA 2007, pp. 113–120.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Kalafut, A. Acharya, and M. Gupta, “A Study of Malware inPeer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. ACM IMC 2006, Oct. 2006, pp.327–332.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. A. Konrath, M. P. Barcellos, and R. B. Mansilha, “Attacking aSwarm with a Band of Liars: Evaluating the Impact of Attacks onBitTorrent,” Proc. 7th IEEE Int’l Conf. Peer-to-PeerComputing, 2007, pp. 37–44.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. Krishnana, M. D. Smith, and R. Telang, “TheEconomics of Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Journal of InformationTechnology Theory and Application, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 31–44,2003.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. Kumar, D. D. Yao, A. Bagchi, K. W. Ross, and D. Rubenstein,“Fluid Modeling of Pollution Proliferation in P2P Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGMetrics 2006, June 2006, pp. 335–346.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. Lawton, “Is Peer-to-Peer Secure Enough for Corporate Use?” IEEE Computer, Jan. 2004, pp. 22–25.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Linga, I. Gupta, and K. Birman, “A Churn-ResistantPeer-to-Peer Web Caching System,” Proc. ACM SSRS 2003,Oct. 2003.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R. T. B. Ma, S. C. M. Lee, J. C. S. Lui, and D. K. Y.Yau, “A Game Theoretic Approach to Provide Incentive and ServiceDifferentiation in P2P Networks,” Proc. SIGMETRICS, June2004, pp. 189–198.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. T. B. Ma, S. C. M. Lee, J. C. S. Lui, and D. K. Y.Yau, “An Incentive Mechanism for P2P Networks,” Proc. 24thInt’l Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 2004.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    P. Maymounkov and D. Mazieres, “Kademlia: A Peer-to-PeerInformation System Based on the XOR Metric,” Proc. 1stInt’l Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS 2002), pp. 53–65.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. J. Osborne, An Introduction to Game Theory, OxfordUniversity Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    V. Pai, K. Kumar, K. Tamilmani, V. Sambamurthy, and A. E. Mohr,“Chainsaw: Eliminating Trees from Overlay Multicast,” Proc. 4th Int’l Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp.127–140, Feb. 2005.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    D. Qiu and R. Srikant, “Modeling and Performance Analysis ofBitTorrent-Like Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. SIGCOMM, pp.367–377, Sept. 2004.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. Ranganathan, M. Ripeanu, A. Sarin and I. Foster,“To Share or not to Share: An Analysis of Incentives toContribute in Collaborative File-Sharing Environments,” Proc. Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer systems, June 2003.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Roussopoulos, M. Baker, D. Rosenthal, T. J. Giuli, P.Maniatis, and J. Mogul, “2 P2P or Not 2 P2P?,” Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Peer-to-PeerSystems (IPTPS ’04), Feb. 2004. La Jolla, CA.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Rowstron and P. Druschel, “Pastry: Scalable, distributedobject address and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems,” Proc. IFIP/ACM Int’l Conf. on Distributed Systems Platforms,Nov. 2001.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    S. Sanghavi and B. Hajek, “A New Mechanism for theFree-Rider Problem,” Proc. SIGCOMM 2005 Workshop, Aug.2005.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. C. Schelling, Micromotives and Macrobehavior, W. W.Norton & Company, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    S. Shin, J. Jung, and H. Balakrishnan, “Malware Prevalence in theKaZaA File-Sharing Network,” Proc. ACM IMC 2006, Oct. 2006,pp. 333–338.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    K. Sripanidkulchai, A. Ganjam, B. Maggs, and H. Zhang, “TheFeasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applicationswith Dynamic Application End-Points,” Proc. SIGCOMM, vol.34, no. 4, pp. 107–120, Aug. 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, M. Frans Kaashoek, andH. Balakrishnan, “Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup Servicefor Internet Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 2001, Aug.2001, pp. 149–160.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Q. Sun and H. Garcia-Molina, “SLIC: A Selfish Link-basedIncentive Mechanism for Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 24th Int’l Conference on Distributed Computing Systems,2004.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. Van Der Werwe, D. Dawoud, and S. McDonald, “A Survey onPeer-to-Peer Key Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 39, no. 1, Apr. 2007.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    V. Venkataraman, P. Francisy, and J. Calandrino, “Chunkyspread:Multi-Tree Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Multicast,” Proc.5th Int’l Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems,Feb. 2006.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    W. Wang and B. Li, “Market-driven Bandwidth Allocationin Selfish Overlay Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005,Mar. 2005.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    F. Wang, Y. Xiong, and J. Liu, “mTreebone: A Hybrid Tree/MeshOverlay for Application-Layer Live Video Multicast,” Proc.ICDCS,June 2007.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    S. D. Webb and S. Soh, “Cheating in Networked Computer Games—AReview,” Proc. ACM DIMEA 2007, pp. 105–112.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. D. Weisz, S. Kiesler, H. Zhang, Y. Ren, R. E. Kraut, and J. A.Konstan, “Watching Together: Integrating Text Chat with Video,” Proc. SIGCHI, pp. 877–886, Apr.–May 2007.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    K. Wongrujira and A. Seneviratne, “Monetary Incentive withReputation for Virtual Market-Place Based P2P,” Proc.CoNEXT’05, Oct. 2005.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    B. Yang and H. Garcia-Molina, “PPay: Micropayments forPeer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. 10th ACM Conference onComputer and Communication Security, pp. 300–310, 2003.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    W. Yu, S. Chellappan, X. Wang, and D. Xuan, “On DefendingPeer-to-Peer System-Based Active Worm Attacks,” Proc. IEEEGLOBECOM 2005, pp. 1757–1761.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    H. Yu, M. Kaminsky, P. B. Gibbons, and A. Flaxman, “SybilGuard:Defending Against Sybil Attacks via Social Networks,” Proc.ACM SIGCOMM 2006, Sept. 2006, pp. 267–278.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    X. Zhang, J. Liu, B. Lim, and T.-S. P. Yum,“CoolStreaming/DONet: A Data-Driven Overlay Network forPeer-to-Peer Live Media Streaming,” Proc. INFOCOM, vol. 3,pp. 2102–2111, Mar. 2005.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. Zhang, Y. Xiong, Q. Zhang, and S. Yang, “Optimizing theThroughput of Data-Driven based Streaming in HeterogeneousOverlay Network,” Proc. 13th Int’l Multimedia ModelingConf., Jan. 2007.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Tang, J.-G. Luo, and S.-Q. Yang,“Large-Scale Live Media Streaming over Peer-to-Peer Networksthrough Global Internet,” Proc. Workshop on Advances inPeer-to-Peer Multimedia Streaming, pp. 21–28, Nov. 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations