Advertisement

Mobile Agent Middleware for Autonomic Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Aristides Mpitziopoulos
  • Damianos Gavalas
  • Charalampos Konstantopoulos
  • Grammati Pantziou
Chapter

Abstract

Mobile agents (MAs) are referred to as autonomous application programs with the inherent ability to move from node to node towards a goal completion. In the context of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), MAs may be used by network administrators in the process of combining data and knowledge from different sources aiming at maximizing the useful information content. MAs have been initially developed to replace the client/server model which exhibits many disadvantages, particularly in WSN environments (e.g.heavy bandwidth usage and excessive energy expenditure). The most promising advantages of MAs in WSN environments include decreased usage of the wireless spectrum (large volumes of raw sensory data are filtered at the source) and energy consumption, increased reliability due to their inherent support for disconnected operations, their ability of cloning themselves to enable parallel execution of similar tasks, etc. The main objective of this chapter is to review and evaluate the most representative MA-based middleware proposals for autonomic data fusion tasks in WSNs and evaluate their relevant strengths and shortcomings. Although the chapter’s focus is on autonomic data fusion tasks, other applications fields that may benefit from the MAs distributed computing paradigm are identified. Open research issues in this field are also discussed.

Keywords

Sensor Network Sensor Node Wireless Sensor Network Cluster Head Processing Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akyildiz, F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.:A Survey on Sensor Networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 102–114, August 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boulis, A.: Programming Sensor Networks with Mobile Agents. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM’2005), pp. 252–256, May 2005.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boulis, A., Han, C., Srivastava, M.:Design and Implementation of a Framework for Efficient and Programmable Sensor Networks. Proc. ACM MobiSys ’03, pp. 187–200, May 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chong, C.Y., Kumar, S.P.:Sensor networks: evolution, opportunities, and challenges. Pro-ceeding of the IEEE, Vol. 91, NO. (8), 1247–1256, Aug. 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, M., Kwon, T., Choi, Y.: Data Dissemination based on Mobile Agent in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 30th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN’05), pp. 527–529, Nov. 2005.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, M., Kwon, T., Yuan, Y., Choi, Y., Leug, V.C.M.: Mobile Agent-Based Directed Diffusion in Wireless Sensor Networks. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing Volume 2007, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2007.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chu, M., Haussecker, H., Zhao, F.: Scalable information-driven sensor querying and routing for ad hoc heterogeneous sensor networks. International Journal of High-Performance Computing Applications, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 293–313 (2002).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elen, B., Michiels, S., Joosen, W., Verbaeten, P.: A middleware pattern to support complex sensor network applications. OOPSLA ’06, Workshop on building software for sensor networks, Portland, Oregon, USA, (2006).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Esau, L.R., Williams K.C.: On teleprocessing system design. Part II- A method for approximating the optimal network. IBM Systems Journal, 5, 142–147, 1966.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Esparza, O., Fernandez, M., Soriano, M., Munoz, J.L., Forne, J.: Mobile Agents Water-marking and Fingerprinting: Tracing Malicious Hosts. DEXA 2003, LNCS 2736, Springer-Verlag, (2003).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fisher, L.: Protecting Integrity and Secrecy of Mobile Agents on Trusted and Non-Trusted Agent Places, diploma thesis, Department of computer science, University of Bremen, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flinn, J., Satyanarayanan, M.: Energy-aware adaptation for mobile applications. Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, pp. 48–63, 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fok, C., Roman, G., Lu, C.: Mobile Agent Middleware for Sensor Networks: An Application Case Study. Proc. IEEE IPSN ’05, pp. 382–387, Apr. 2005.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fuggeta, A., Picco, G.P., Vigna, G.: Understanding Code Mobility. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 24(5), 346–361, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gavalas, D.: Mobile Software Agents for Network Monitoring and Performance Man-agement, PhD Thesis, University of Essex, UK, July 2001.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gavalas, D., Pantziou, G., Konstantopoulos, C., Mamalis, B.: New Techniques for Incremental Data Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 11th Panhellenic Conference on Informatics (PCI’2007), pp. 599–608, (2007).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Geihs, K.: Middleware Challenges Ahead. IEEE Computer, pp. 24–31, (2001).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Al-Hammouri, A., Zhang, W., Buchheit, R., Liberatore, V., Chrysanthis, P., Pruhs, K.: Network Awareness and Application Adaptability. Information Systems and E-Business Management, (4), 399–419, Oct. 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iyengar, S. S., Jayasimha, D. N., Nadig, D.: A versatile architecture for the distributed sensor integration problem. IEEE Trans. Comput., 43(2), pp. 175–185, Feb. 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guibas, L.J. Sensing, tracking, and reasoning with relations. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2002, pp. 73–85, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Heinzelman, W., Kulik, J., Balakrishnan, H.: Adaptive Protocols for Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of 5th ACM/IEEE Mobicom Conference, pp. 174–185, (1999).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heinzelman, W.B., Murphy, A.L., Carvalho, H.S., Perillo M.A.: Middleware to Support Sensor Network Applications. IEEE Network, pp. 6–14, Jan./Feb. 2004.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Intanagonwiwat, C., Govindan, R., Estrin, D.: Directed diffusion: a scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks. Proceedings of the 6th Annual International conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 56–67, 2000.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jayasimha, D.N., Iyengar, S.S., Kashyap, R.L.: Information integration and synchronization in distributed sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., 21(21), 1032–1043, Sept./Oct. 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jiao,Y., Hurson, A.R.: Adaptive Power Management for Mobile Agent-Based Information Retrieval. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA’05), pp. 675–680, Mar. 2005.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kendall, E.A., Krishna, P.V.M., Pathak, C.V., Suresh, C.B.:Patterns of Intelligent and Mobile Agents. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents (Agents98), pp. 92–99, May 1998.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kershenbaum, A.: Telecommunications Network Design Algorithms, McGraw-Hill, 1993.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Knoll, A., Meinkoehn, J.: Data fusion using large multi-agent networks: an analysis of network structure and performance. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI), Las Vegas, NV, IEEE, pp. 113–120, Oct. 2–5 1994.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krause, S., Magedanz, T.: Mobile Service Agents enabling Intelligence on Demand in Telecommunications. Proceedings of IEEE GLOBCOM 96, pp. 78–84 , Nov. 1996.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lange, D.B., Oshima, M.: Seven Good Reasons for Mobile Agents. Communications of the ACM, 42(3), 88–89, Mar. 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Levis, P., Culler, D.: Mat?: a tiny virtual machine for sensor networks. In ASPLOS- X: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Architectural support for programming languages and operating systems, pp. 85–95, 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li, S., Son, S.H., Stankovic, J.A.: Event detection services using data service middleware in distributed sensor networks. In IPSN’03:Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks, pp. 502–517, 2003.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lindsey, S., Raghavendra, C. S.: PEGASIS: Power Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information Systems. In Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference, vol.3, pp. 1125–1130, 2002.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lindsey, S., Raghavendra, C.S., Sivalingam, K.:Data Gathering in Sensor Networks using the Energy*Delay Metric. In Proceedings of the IPDPS Workshop on Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, pp. 2001–2008, 2001.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu, T., Martonosi, M.: Impala: a middleware system for managing autonomic, parallel sensor systems, In PPoPP’03: Proceedings of the ninth ACM SIGPLAN symposium on Principles and practice of parallel programming, pp.107–118, 2003.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lotfinezhad, M., Liang, B.: Energy Efficient Clustering in Sensor Networks with Mobile Agents. In Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC’05), vol. 3, pp. 1872–1877, Mar. 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Madden, S., Franklin, M.J., Hellerstein, J.M.: TAG: A Tiny Aggregation Service for Ad–Hoc Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’02), vol. 36, pp. 131–146, USENIX, Dec. 2002.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Madden, S., Franklin, M.J., Hellerstein, J.M., Hong, W.: The design of an acquisitional query processor for sensor networks. In SIGMOD’03: proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD international conference on management of data, pp. 491–502, 2003.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Malik, H., Shakshuki, E., Dewolf, T.: Multi–agent System for Directed Diffusion in Wireless Sensor Networks. 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, vol. 2, pp. 635–640, May 2007.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Milojicic D.: Mobile Agent Applications. IEEE Concurrency, 7(3), July–Sep. 1999.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mpitziopoulos, A., Gavalas, D., Konstantopoulos, C., Pantziou, G.:Deriving efficient mobile agent routes in wireless sensor networks with NOID algorithm. In Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC’2007), Athens, Greece, pp. 1–5, Sep. 2007.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pham, V., Karmouch, A.: Mobile Software Agents: An Overview. IEEE Communica–tions Magazine, 36(7), pp. 26–37, (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pieprzyk, J., Hardjono, T., Seberry, J.: Fundamentals of Computer Security. Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 2003.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Prasad, L., Iyengar, S.S., Rao, R.L.: Fault–tolerant sensor integration using multiresolution decomposition. Physical Review E, 49(4), 3452–3461, Apr. 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Qi, H., Wang, F.: Optimal Itinerary Analysis for Mobile Agents in Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the13th International Conference on Wireless Communica–tions (Wireless’2001), pp. 147–153, 2001.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Qi, H., Iyengar, S.S., Chakrabarty, K.: Multi–resolution data integration using mobile agents in distributed sensor networks, IEEE Trans. on Syst., Man, and Cybern. Part C: Applications and Reviews 31(3), 383–391, 2001.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Qi, H., Kurganti, P. T., Xu, Y.: The Development of Localized Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors, 2, 286–293, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raghunathan, V., Schurgers, C., Park, S., Srivastava, M.B.: Energy–aware wireless microsensor networks, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 19(2), 40–50, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reuter, E., Baude, F.: System and Network Management Itineraries for Mobile Agents. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Mobile Agents for Telecommunication Applications (MATA’02), LNCS vol. 2521, pp. 227–238, Oct. 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rubinstein, M.G., Duarte, O.C., Pujolle, G.: Scalability of a Mobile Agents Based Net–work Management Application. Journal of Communications and Networks, 5(3), Sept. 2003.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sander, T., Tschudin, Ch. F.: Protecting mobile agents against malicious hosts. In Mobile Agents and Security, vol. 1419 of LNCS. Springer–Verlag, 1998.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Savvides, A., Han, C.C., Srivastava, M.B.: Dynamic fine–grained localization in ad–hoc networks of sensors. In Proc. Seventh Ann. ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom 2001), ACM press, Rome, Italy, pp. 166–179, 2001.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shih, D.H., Huang, S.Y., Yen, D.C.: A New Reverse Auction Agent System for m–Commerce Using Mobile Agents, Computer Standards & Interfaces, 27(4), 383–395, Apr. 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Silva, F., Heidemann, J.,Govindan, R., Estrin, D.: Directed Diffusion, Technical Report ISI–TR–2004–586, USC/Information Sciences Institute, Jan. 2004.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tong, L., Zhao, Q., Adireddy, S.: Sensor Networks with Mobile Agents. In Proc. IEEE MILCOM’03, Boston, MA, pp. 1–6, Oct. 2003.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tseng, Y.C., Kuo, S.P., Lee, H.W., Huang, C.F.: Location Tracking in a Wireless Sensor Network by Mobile Agents and Its Data Fusion Strategies. Computer Journal, 47(4), 448–460, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tiny Os: http://www.tinyos.net/. Cited 20 Feb. 2008.
  58. 58.
    Umezawa, U., Satoh, I., Anzai, Y.: A Mobile Agent–Based Framework for Configurable Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Mobile Agents for Telecommunications Applications (MATA’02), pp. 128–140, Oct. 2002.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vigna, G.: Protecting Mobile Agents through Tracing. Proceedings of the 3rd ECOOP Workshop on Mobile Object Systems, Finland, June 1997.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vigna, G.: Cryptographic traces for mobile agents. In Mobile Agents and Security, vol. 1419 of LNCS. Springer–Verlag, 1998.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Xu, Y., Qi, H.: Distributed Computing Paradigms for Collaborative Signal and Information Processing in Sensor Networks. Int’l. J. Parallel and Distrib. Comp., 64(8), 945–959, Aug. 2004.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wald L.: Some terms of reference in data fusion. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 37(3), 1190–1193, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wang, X., Bi, D.W., Ding, L., Wang, S.: Agent Collaborative Target Localization and Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 7, 1359–1387, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wu, Q., Rao, N., Barhen, J., Iyengar, S., Vaishnavi, V., Qi, H., Chakrabarty, K.: On Computing Mobile Agent Routes for Data Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 16(6), 740–753, June 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zaslavsky, A.: Mobile Agents: Can They Assist with Context Awareness? 2004 IEEE MDM’04, Berkeley, California, pp. 304–305, Jan. 2004.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zhao, F., Shin, J., Reich, J.: Information–driven dynamic sensor collaboration for tracking applications. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 19(2), 61–72, Mar. 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhao, F., Guibas, L., Wireless Sensor Networks. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aristides Mpitziopoulos
    • 1
  • Damianos Gavalas
    • 1
  • Charalampos Konstantopoulos
    • 2
  • Grammati Pantziou
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cultural Technology and CommunicationUniversity of the Aegean Address of InstituteLesvosGreece
  2. 2.Research Academic Computer Technology InstitutePatrasGreece
  3. 3.Department of InformaticsTechnological Educational Institution of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations