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Introduction

  • Virginia H. Dale
  • Walter Boynton
  • Catherine L. Kling
  • Daniel J. Conley
  • Judith L. Meyer
  • William Crumpton
  • James Sanders
  • Holly Stallworth
  • Mark David
  • Thomas Armitage
  • Denis Gilbert
  • David Wangsness
  • Thomas Bianchi
  • Robert W. Howarth
  • Alan Blumberg
  • Richard Lowrance
  • Kyle Mankin
  • Andrew N. Sharpley
  • James Opaluch
  • Thomas W. Simpson
  • Hans Paerl
  • Clifford S. Snyder
  • Kenneth Reckhow
  • Donelson Wright
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

Nutrient over-enrichment from anthropogenic sources is a major stressor of aquatic, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. Nutrients enter ecosystems through off-target migration of fertilizer from agricultural fields, golf courses, and lawns; disposal of animal manure; atmospheric deposition of nitrogen; erosion of soil containing nutrients; sewage treatment plant discharges; and other industrial discharges. Excessive nutrients promote nuisance blooms (excessive growth) of opportunistic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae. When the available nutrients in the water column have been sequestered in plant biomass, the nuisance blooms die, decompose, and deplete dissolved oxygen in the water column and at the sediment water interface. This oxygen depletion, known as hypoxia, occurs when normal dissolved oxygen concentrations in shallow coastal and estuarine systems decrease below the level required to support many estuarine and marine organisms (≤ 2 mg/L).

Keywords

Biomass Migration Phosphorus Sewage Stratification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virginia H. Dale
    • 1
  • Walter Boynton
    • 2
  • Catherine L. Kling
    • 3
  • Daniel J. Conley
    • 4
  • Judith L. Meyer
    • 5
  • William Crumpton
    • 6
  • James Sanders
    • 7
  • Holly Stallworth
    • 8
  • Mark David
    • 9
  • Thomas Armitage
    • 8
  • Denis Gilbert
    • 10
  • David Wangsness
    • 11
  • Thomas Bianchi
    • 12
  • Robert W. Howarth
    • 13
  • Alan Blumberg
    • 14
  • Richard Lowrance
    • 15
  • Kyle Mankin
    • 16
  • Andrew N. Sharpley
    • 17
  • James Opaluch
    • 18
  • Thomas W. Simpson
    • 19
  • Hans Paerl
    • 20
  • Clifford S. Snyder
    • 21
  • Kenneth Reckhow
    • 22
  • Donelson Wright
    • 23
  1. 1.Division of Environmental SciencesOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Science Chesapeake Biological Lab.University of MarylandSolomonsUSA
  3. 3.Department of EconmicsIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  4. 4.Department of GeologyLund University GeoBiosphere Science CenterLundSweden
  5. 5.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of Georgia Institute of EcologyAthensUSA
  6. 6.Department of Ecology, Evolution, & Organismal Biology (EEOB)Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  7. 7.Skidaway Institute of OceanographySavannahUSA
  8. 8.US Environmental Protection AgencyWashingtonUSA
  9. 9.Department of Natural Resources & Environmental SciencesUniversity of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  10. 10.Fisheries and Oceans Canada Maurice Lamontagne InstituteMont-JoliCanada
  11. 11.US Geological Survey 430 National CenterRestonUSA
  12. 12.Department of OceanographyTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  13. 13.Department of Ecology & Evolutionary BiologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  14. 14.Department of Chemical, Biomedical & Materials EngineeringStevens Institute of TechnologyHobrokenUSA
  15. 15.U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service, Southeast Watershed, Research LaboratoryTiftonUSA
  16. 16.Department of Biological & Agricultural EngineeringKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  17. 17.Department of Crop, Soil, & Environmental SciencesUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  18. 18.Department of Environmental & Natural Resource EconomicsUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  19. 19.University of Maryland, College of Agriculture & Natural ResourcesCollege ParkUSA
  20. 20.University of North Carolina, Institute of Marine SciencesMoorehead CityUSA
  21. 21.International Plant Nutrition InstituteConwayUSA
  22. 22.Nicholas School of the Environment & Earth ScienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  23. 23.Virginia Institute for Marine Science College of William & Mary School of Marine ScienceGloucester PointUSA

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