Nutrient over-enrichment from anthropogenic sources is a major stressor of aquatic, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. Nutrients enter ecosystems through off-target migration of fertilizer from agricultural fields, golf courses, and lawns; disposal of animal manure; atmospheric deposition of nitrogen; erosion of soil containing nutrients; sewage treatment plant discharges; and other industrial discharges. Excessive nutrients promote nuisance blooms (excessive growth) of opportunistic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae. When the available nutrients in the water column have been sequestered in plant biomass, the nuisance blooms die, decompose, and deplete dissolved oxygen in the water column and at the sediment water interface. This oxygen depletion, known as hypoxia, occurs when normal dissolved oxygen concentrations in shallow coastal and estuarine systems decrease below the level required to support many estuarine and marine organisms (≤ 2 mg/L).