• Alexander Shvetsov


The city, as part of the cultural landscape, is a mobile and highly dynamic system, the changes of which are related to a variety of economic and social factors. Periods of stabilisation alternate with periods of fast changes and development of the city. Vegetative cover as an element of urban environment is directly or indirectly affected by all these factors and phenomena. Species of natural communities are of special concern. The reduction in the population size and frequency of many native species can adversely affect their survival. It is ­possible that many rare species will disappear from the city, primarily those of wet and dry meadows, forest edges, meadows and marsh communities. There is also another danger, which is generally overlooked – the loss of native genotypes and their replacement by alien genotypes of the same taxon. These negative processes can also affect non-native species, for example, plants of old parks and “relics of cultivation” such as Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Luzula luzuloides, Phyteuma spicatum and Poa chaixii.


Alien Species Acer Negundo Fraxinus Pennsylvanica Waste Ground Geum Urbanum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Abramova M.I., Ignatov M.S. (2004) Mosses in conditions of recreational use of forests. In: Influence of recreation on forest ecosystems and their components. ONTI PNC of RAN, Pushino. P. 177–214.Google Scholar
  2. Biazrov L.G. (2004) Lichens of Moscow recreational forest plantings In: Influence of recreation on forest ecosystems and their components. ONTI PNC of RAN, Pushino. P. 149–176.Google Scholar
  3. Frolov T.Y., Antonenko S.L. (2002) Use of imported vegetative soil for Moscow gardening in 2000. Ecology of the large city 6: 158–162.Google Scholar
  4. Gutnikov A.V., Shvetsov A.N. (2004) Landscape indication of valuable natural objects in the area of Moscow. Bulletin of the Main Botanical Garden 187: 50–70.Google Scholar
  5. Isaev A.A., Gutnikov V.A., Sherstiukov B.G. (2002) Scientific – applied directory on Moscow climate. Air temperature, precipitation (by months and per year), data on heating period (1879–2000). MSU, Moscow. 160 p.Google Scholar
  6. Moscow. Encyclopedia (1997). Big Russian Encyclopedia, Moscow. 976p.Google Scholar
  7. Moscow in the descriptions of 18th century (1997). Yanus-K, Moscow. 320 p.Google Scholar
  8. Nizovtsev V.A., Shurkina E.A. (1997) Landscape preconditions of the foundation of Moscow. In: History of study, application and protection of Moscow and Moscow region natural resources. Yanus-K, Moscow. P. 26–34.Google Scholar
  9. Pallas P.S. (1781) Enumeratio plantarum quae in Horto viri illustris atque excell. D-ni Procopii a Demidof. Consiliari status actualis, et orphanotrophaei moscuensis summi benefactoris, Moscuae vigent, recensente P.S. Pallas, Academico Petropolitano. Academy of sciences, St. Petersburg. 163 p.Google Scholar
  10. Red Book of the Moscow region (2008). KMK Scientific Press Ltd., Moscow. 828 p.Google Scholar
  11. Shvetsov A.N. (1997) The synopsis of the flora in the area of Moscow. Bulletin of the Main Botanical Garden 174: 47–57.Google Scholar
  12. Stroganova M.N. (1998) Urban soil: genesis, systematic and ecological significance (Moscow as an example). Ph.D. Thesis of the Moscow State University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Main Botanical Garden Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations